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Polyadenylation of mRNA (poly a tail)
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule. The poly(A) tail consists of multiple adenosine monophosphates; in other words, it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases. In eukaryotes, polyadenylation is part of the process that produces mature messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation. It, therefore, forms part of the larger process of gene expression. The process of polyadenylation begins as the transcription of a gene finishes, or terminates. The 3'-most segment of the newly made RNA is first cleaved off by a set of proteins; these proteins then synthesize the poly(A) tail at the RNA's 3' end. In some genes, these proteins may add a poly(A) tail at any one of several possible sites. Therefore, polyadenylation can produce more than one transcript from a single gene (alternative polyadenylation), similar to alternative splicing.[1] The poly(A) tail is important for the nuclear export, translation, and stability of mRNA. The tail is shortened over time, and, when it is short enough, the mRNA is enzymatically degraded.[2] However, in a few cell types, mRNAs with short poly(A) tails are stored for later activation by re-polyadenylation in the cytosol.[3] In contrast, when polyadenylation occurs in bacteria, it promotes RNA degradation.[4] This is also sometimes the case for eukaryotic non-coding RNAs.[5] The polyadenylation machinery in the nucleus of eukaryotes works on products of RNA polymerase II, such as precursor mRNA. Here, a multi-protein complex (see components on the right) cleaves the 3'-most part of a newly produced RNA and polyadenylates the end produced by this cleavage. The cleavage is catalysed by the enzyme CPSF[11] and occurs 10--30 nucleotides downstream of its binding site.[16] This site is often the sequence AAUAAA on the RNA, but variants of it that bind more weakly to CPSF exist.[17] Two other proteins add specificity to the binding to an RNA: CstF and CFI. CstF binds to a GU-rich region further downstream of CPSF's site.[18] CFI recognises a third site on the RNA (a set of UGUAA sequences in mammals[19][20][21]) and can recruit CPSF even if the AAUAAA sequence is missing.[22][23] The polyadenylation signal -- the sequence motif recognised by the RNA cleavage complex -- varies between groups of eukaryotes. Most human polyadenylation sites contain the AAUAAA sequence,[18] but this sequence is less common in plants and fungi.[24] The RNA is typically cleaved before transcription termination, as CstF also binds to RNA polymerase II.[25] Through a poorly-understood mechanism (as of 2002), it signals for RNA polymerase II to slip off of the transcript.[26] Cleavage also involves the protein CFII, though it is unknown how.[27] The cleavage site associated with a polyadenylation signal can vary up to some 50 nucleotides.[28] When the RNA is cleaved, polyadenylation starts, catalysed by polyadenylate polymerase. Polyadenylate polymerase builds the poly(A) tail by adding adenosine monophosphate units from adenosine triphosphate to the RNA, cleaving off pyrophosphate.[29] Another protein, PAB2, binds to the new, short poly(A) tail and increases the affinity of polyadenylate polymerase for the RNA. When the poly(A) tail is approximately 250 nucleotides long the enzyme can no longer bind to CPSF and polyadenylation stops, thus determining the length of the poly(A) tail.[30][31] CPSF is in contact with RNA polymerase II, allowing it to signal the polymerase to terminate transcription.[32][33] When RNA polymerase II reaches a "termination sequence" (TTATT on the DNA template and AAUAAA on the primary transcript), the end of transcription is signaled.[34] The polyadenylation machinery is also physically linked to the spliceosome, a complex that removes introns from RNAs.[23] Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 38148 Shomu's Biology
mRNA 5 prime cap and poly-A tail
 
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mRNA production and processing aspects of Transcription
Views: 279684 Jack Slater
Medical vocabulary: What does RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals mean
 
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What does RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals mean in English?
Views: 14 botcaster inc. bot
Polyadenylation
 
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Views: 2932 Swift Chou
Transcription termination in eukaryotes | Eukaryotic transcription part 2
 
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Eukaryotic transcription termination - This lecture explains about the transcription termination in eukaryotes. Eukaryotic transcription terminates when it reaches a specific poly A signal sequence in the growing RNA chain. That signal sequence helps in the termination of eukaryotic transcription after recruiting enzymes like CPSF and CSTF and other cleavage factors. The cleavage of RNA and attachment of many A residues in the growing chain terminates the eukaryotic transcription. Poly adenylation is catalyzed by Poly A polymerase and guided by poly A binding protein. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the lecture video on Transcription termination in eukaryotes.
Views: 23032 Shomu's Biology
mRNA Splicing
 
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NDSU Virtual Cell Animations Project animation 'mRNA Splicing'. For more information please see http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations Before being used in translation, mRNA must be spliced. During splicing, introns are removed and the translatable exons that remain are spliced into a single strand of mRNA.
Views: 847347 ndsuvirtualcell
Signal sequence
 
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Signal sequence can refer to: This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 112 Audiopedia
3'   Polyadenylation
 
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Views: 1809 steve10304235
Transcription termination in prokaryotes | Prokaryotic transcription lecture 4
 
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Transcription termination in prokaryotes – This lecture explains about the prokaryotic transcription termination. RNA synthesis will continue along the DNA template strand until the polymerase encounters a sign that tells it to stop, or terminate, transcription. In prokaryotes, this signal can take two types, rho-unbiased and rho-dependent. Rho-independent Terminator The rho- independent terminator is the extra simple of the two programs and thus is also referred to as easy termination. The rho- independent signal is located on the DNA template strand and consists of a neighborhood that contains a section that is then repeated a number of base pairs away in the inverted sequence. When this stretch is transcribed into an RNA sequence, the RNA can fold back and base pair with itself forming a hairpin loop. As you can find, the string of adenines in the DNA sequence are transcribed into uracils within the RNA sequence. On account that the uracil bases will simplest pair weakly with the adenines, the RNA chain can conveniently be launched from the DNA template, terminating transcription. Rho-dependent Terminator The rho- dependent terminator acquired its title in view that it is elegant on a particular protein called a rho component. The rho component is idea to bind to the end of the RNA chain and slide along the strand closer to the open tricky bubble. When the aspect catches the polymerase, it motives the termination of transcription. The mechanism of this termination is uncertain; however the rho component would by some means pull the polymerase tricky off of the DNA strand. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching
Views: 80181 Shomu's Biology
Competition of cytoplasmic mRNA functions - Roy Parker (Boulder/HHMI)
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/eukaryotic-mrna/ Relationship between translation, repression, degradation and localization of mRNA
Views: 227 iBiology Techniques
DNA Transcription (Basic)
 
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Transcription is the process by which the information in DNA is copied into messenger RNA (mRNA) for protein production. Originally created for DNA Interactive ( http://www.dnai.org ). TRANSCRIPT: What you are about to see is DNA's most extraordinary secret — how a simple code is turned into flesh and blood. It begins with a bundle of factors assembling at the start of a gene. A gene is simply a length of DNA instructions stretching away to the left. The assembled factors trigger the first phase of the process, reading off the information that will be needed to make the protein. Everything is ready to roll: three, two, one, GO! The blue molecule racing along the DNA is reading the gene. It's unzipping the double helix, and copying one of the two strands. The yellow chain snaking out of the top is a copy of the genetic message and it's made of a close chemical cousin of DNA called RNA. The building blocks to make the RNA enter through an intake hole. They are matched to the DNA - letter by letter - to copy the As, Cs, Ts and Gs of the gene. The only difference is that in the RNA copy, the letter T is replaced with a closely related building block known as "U". You are watching this process - called transcription - in real time. It's happening right now in almost every cell in your body.
Views: 588495 DNA Learning Center
Roy Parker (U. Colorado Boulder/HHMI) Part 1: mRNA Localization, Translation and Degradation
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/eukaryotic-mrna/ Part 1 The control of mRNA production and function is a key aspect of the regulation of gene expression. In the first part of this lecture, I will discuss how in eukaryotic cells, the control of mRNA localization, translation and degradation in the cytoplasm allow for the proper regulation of the amount, duration, and location of protein production. The basic mechanisms of these processes are understood and reveal that the mechanisms of localization, translation, and degradation are interconnected. The unique properties of each mRNA are dictated by its intrinsic interactions with cellular machines, as well as its complement of mRNA specific RNA binding proteins and miRNAs. Strikingly, mRNPs are dynamic and can be modulated by protein modifications as well as by modification of the mRNA itself, thereby providing a diversity of targets for the regulation of mRNA function in response to extracellular signals. In 2012, Roy Parker joined the University of Colorado, Boulder after many years at the University of Arizona.
Views: 19903 iBiology
USER TALK: Mapping Nuclear Exosome Targeted RNAs with 3´-end  RNA Sequencing
 
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USER TALK: Mapping Nuclear Exosome Targeted RNAs with 3´-end RNA Sequencing ABSTRACT: A large fraction of the RNA transcribed in eukaryotic cells is rapidly degraded in the nucleus. A poly-adenylation complex distinct from the canonical poly(A) machinery is responsible for initiating 3´-5´ degradation of nuclear RNAs. This non-canonical poly(A) machinery, termed the Trf4/5-Air1/2-Mtr4 or TRAMP complex, catalyzes the addition of 3-4 adenosines on target RNA 3´-ends. This tags the transcript for 3´-5´ exonuclease digestion by the nuclear RNA exosome, which can either degrade or trim the RNA in a manner dependent on the presence of RNA structures or RNA-binding proteins. Inactivating the nuclear exosome stabilizes these otherwise short-lived RNAs, and subsequent cellular polyadenylation lengthens the oligo(A) tails to more than 30 adenosines.The majority of these poly(A)+ 3´-ends arise from non-coding and pervasive RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts undergoing transcription termination by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) complex. 3´-sequencing of RNAs from exosome-inactivated cells enabled mapping the precise 3´-ends of these unstable RNAs, providing a high-resolution view of NNS termination genome-wide.Surprisingly, different NNS-dependent terminators display substantial heterogeneity in the width of the termination window, with some genes terminating the majority of transcripts in a window of less than 10 bp while others exhibit termination sites over a broad region of more than 500 bp. Further analysis of NNS-terminators with a narrow termination window revealed that a particular set of DNA-binding proteins cooperate with NNS by roadblocking Pol II to promote efficient transcription termination genome-wide. Using the QuantSeq 3´ mRNA-Seq library prep kits, we were able to multiplex more than 40 samples per sequencing lane and obtain between 2 to 5 million reads per sample. This enabled us to analyze numerous different strains with various exosome and roadblocking factors inactivated, showing that inactivating roadblocks shifted the window of NNS termination downstream. Strikingly, disabling NNS enabled elongation of Pol II through the same roadblocks.These results explain how RNA processing signals control the outcome of collisions between Pol II and DNA binding proteins. Learning Objectives: • Learn practical considerations involved in preparing QuantSeq 3´-poly(A)+ libraries and in processing, mapping, and analyzing reads. • Learn how to cluster poly(A) tags and perform differential expression analysis on clusters, and perform different types of meta-site/pileup analyses. SPEAKER: Kevin Roy Postdoctoral Scholar, Department of Genetics, Stanford University FOR MORE INFORMATION: Learn more about QuantSeq 3‘ mRNA-Seq Library Prep Kit: https://www.lexogen.com/quantseq-3mrna-sequencing Learn more about Lexogen products: https://www.lexogen.com FOLLOW US: Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/lexogen Twitter - https://twitter.com/lexogen LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/company/lexogen-gmbh Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/lexogen/
Views: 324 Lexogen Inc.
Ramanujan Hegde (MRC) 3: Recognition of Protein Localization Signals
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/cell-biology/protein-localization-inside-cells/#part-3 Part 1: Compartmentalization of Proteins Inside Cells: Hegde reviews key historical experiments that have informed our understanding protein localization within a cell. Part 2: Quality Control of Protein Localization: Mislocalization of proteins can have devastating effects for the entire organism. Hegde explains how cells detect and degrade mislocalized proteins. Part 3: Recognition of Protein Localization Signals: How does the protein translocation machinery recognize thousands of distinct signal sequences and target proteins to cellular membranes or for secretion? Talk Overview: Cells are organized into many different compartments such as the cytosol, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. Almost all proteins are made in the cytosol, yet each cellular compartment requires a specific set of proteins.  How does the cell regulate protein localization to be sure that proteins end up where they should? In his first lecture, Manu Hegde reviews the history of this field and highlights key experiments that have led to our current understanding of how protein localization occurs. In his second lecture, Hegde explains that although the protein localization system usually operates accurately, it does sometimes fail.  This can be due to genetic mutations, stress within an organelle, or just intrinsic inefficiencies that accompany any complex process. As a graduate student, Hegde used a cell-free in vitro system to study the translocation of prion protein into the ER. He found that a small amount of prion protein did not completely cross the ER membrane as expected, but remained in a transmembrane form. Worried that this was an artifact of the in vitro system, he designed experiments in mice to see what the effect of an increase in mislocalized, transmembrane prion protein would be. He found a striking result - even a small increase in the amount of transmembrane prion protein caused increased neurodegeneration in mice. It turns out that incomplete translocation is not unique to prion protein. Hegde tells us how, as an independent investigator, his lab went on to investigate why this happens and how the cell monitors and degrades proteins that are not properly localized. Proteins that are secreted from the cell or localized to the plasma membrane need first to be translocated into the lumen of the ER or inserted into the ER membrane. Thousands of proteins, each with a unique signal sequence, move through this pathway. How does the protein translocation machinery recognize these diverse signals and correctly localize the protein?  In his third talk, Hegde describes studies from his lab using cryo-electron microscopy to visualize the translocation machinery at different stages in the recognition and engagement of a secreted or membrane inserted protein. The structural information gleaned from these experiments helps to explain how the protein translocation machinery works with high fidelity even when it needs to recognize diverse signal sequences. Speaker Biography: As an undergraduate, Ramanujan (Manu) Hegde studied biology at the University of Chicago with the thought that he would become a doctor.  His summers and spare time were spent working in a lab, where he came to love the problem-solving of basic research. Hegde then fled Chicago winters for the sunshine of The University of California, San Francisco, where he completed an MD-PhD combined degree program. By then, he had decided to pursue basic research as a career, and moved to the National Institutes of Health where he was an investigator for 11 years. In 2011, Hegde moved to the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England, where his research focuses on the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis and quality control. Hegde’s research contributions have been recognized with his election as a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization in 2013 and as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2016. Learn more about Manu Hegde’s research here: http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/groups/hegde/ and http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/group-leaders/h-to-m/ramanujan-hegde/
Views: 1892 iBiology
Addition of Continuous Time Signals  -  Signals and Systems
 
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Signals & Systems: Addition of Continuous Time Signals Topics Covered: 1. Adding two continuous time signals.
Kevin Roy - Mapping nuclear exosome targeted polyA tails with 3´ RNA seq
 
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Watch this webinar at Labroots at: http://www.labroots.com/webinar/mapping-nuclear-exosome-targeted-poly-a-tails-3-rna-seq A large fraction of the RNA transcribed in eukaryotic cells is rapidly degraded in the nucleus. A poly-adenylation complex distinct from the canonical poly A machinery is responsible for initiating 3´-5´ degradation of nuclear RNAs. This non-canonical poly A machinery, termed the Trf4 5-Air1 2-Mtr4 or TRAMP complex, catalyzes the addition of 3-4 adenosines on target RNA 3´-ends. This tags the transcript for 3´-5´ exonuclease digestion by the nuclear RNA exosome, which can either degrade or trim the RNA in a manner dependent on the presence of RNA structures or RNA-binding proteins. Inactivating the nuclear exosome stabilizes these otherwise short-lived RNAs, and subsequent cellular polyadenylation lengthens the oligo A tails to 30 adenosines.The majority of these poly A+ 3´-ends arise from non-coding and pervasive RNA polymerase II Pol II transcripts undergoing transcription termination by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 NNS complex. 3´-sequencing of RNAs from exosome-inactivated cells enabled mapping the precise 3´-ends of these unstable RNAs, providing a high-resolution view of NNS termination genome-wide.Surprisingly, different NNS-dependent terminators display substantial heterogeneity in the width of the termination window, with some genes terminating the majority of transcripts in a window of 10 bp while others exhibit termination sites over a broad region of 500 bp. Further analysis of NNS-terminators with a narrow termination window revealed that a particular set of DNA-binding proteins cooperate with NNS by roadblocking Pol II to promote efficient transcription termination genome-wide. Using the QuantSeq 3´ mRNA-Seq library prep kits, we were able to multiplex 40 samples per sequencing lane and obtain between 2 to 5 million reads per sample. This enabled us to analyze numerous different strains with various exosome and roadblocking factors inactivated, showing that inactivating roadblocks shifted the window of NNS termination downstream. Strikingly, disabling NNS enabled elongation of Pol II through the same roadblocks.These results explain how RNA processing signals control the outcome of collisions between Pol II and DNA binding proteins.
Views: 98 LabRoots
Post Transcriptional Gene Control (Intro)
 
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Sqadia video is the demonstration of Post Transcriptional Gene Control. Control may be exerted as a primary transcript is processed in the nucleus, during export of an mRNA to the cytoplasm, or in the cytoplasm. Any one gene would likely be regulated by only one or a few of the possible control mechanisms. Shortly after RNA polymerase II initiates transcription at the first nucleotide of the first exon of a gene, the 5’ end of the nascent RNA is capped with 7-methylguanylate. For large genes with multiple introns, introns often are spliced out of the nascent RNA during its transcription. 5’ cap and sequence adjacent to the poly(A) tail are retained in mature mRNAs. Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) binds to the upstream AAUAAA poly(A) signal. CStF interacts with a downstream GU- or U-rich sequence and with bound CPSF, forming a loop in the RNA; binding of CFI and CFII help stabilize the complex. After 200–250 A residues have been added, PABPII signals PAP to stop polymerization. Two transesterification reactions result in splicing of exons in pre-mRNA, in the first reaction, the ester bond between the 5’ phosphorus of the intron and the 3’ oxygen of exon 1 is exchanged for an ester bond with the 2’ of the branch-site A residue. In the second reaction, the ester bond between the 5’ phosphorus of exon 2 and the 3’ oxygen of the intron is exchanged for an ester bond with the 3’ oxygen of exon 1, releasing the intron as a lariat structure and joining the two exons. Stream the COMPLETE lecture on sqadia.com https://www.sqadia.com/programs/post-transcriptional-gene-control
Views: 126 sqadia.com
Transcription
 
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NDSU Virtual Cell Animations Project animation 'Transcription'. For more information please see http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations Transcription is a vital process in biological lifeforms. It is through this process that the biological roadmap encoded in a strand of DNA is used to produce a complementary RNA copy. The RNA can then go on to help produce the proteins and enzymes that power living organisms.
Views: 2367103 ndsuvirtualcell
genome annotation
 
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Subscribe today and give the gift of knowledge to yourself or a friend genome annotation Genome Annotation. BBSI July 14, 2005 Rita Shiang. Genome Annotation. Identification of important components in genomic DNA. What is a Gene?. Fundamental unit of heredity Slideshow 2971822 by yosefu show1 : genome annotation show2 : genome annotation show3 : genome annotation1 show4 : genome annotation1 show5 : what is a gene show6 : what is a gene show7 : what components are important in protein coding genes show8 : what components are important in protein coding genes show9 : tata box show10 : tata box show11 : other promoters show12 : other promoters show13 : polyadenylation cleavage show14 : polyadenylation cleavage show15 : splicing show16 : splicing show17 : splice reaction show18 : splice reaction show19 : splice sites show20 : splice sites show21 : additional splice sites show22 : additional splice sites show23 : translation signals show24 : translation signals show25 : capping of 5 rna with 7 methylguanylate m 7 g show26 : capping of 5 rna with 7 methylguanylate m 7 g show27 : known gene components show28 : known gene components show29 : genome annotation2 show30 : genome annotation2 show31 : repetitive dna makes up at least 50 of the genome
Rachel Green (Johns Hopkins U., HHMI) 2: Protein synthesis: mRNA surveillance by the ribosome
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/biochemistry/protein-synthesis/#part-2 Talk Overview: In her first talk, Green provides a detailed look at protein synthesis, or translation. Translation is the process by which nucleotides, the “language” of DNA and RNA, are translated into amino acids, the “language” of proteins. Green begins by describing the components needed for translation; mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, and the initiation, elongation, and termination factors. She then explains the roles of these players in ensuring accuracy during the initiation, elongation, termination and recycling steps of the translation process. By comparing translation in bacteria and eukaryotes, Green explains that it is possible to determine which components and steps are highly conserved and predate the divergence of different kingdoms on the tree of life, and which are more recent adaptations. Green’s second talk focuses on work from her lab investigating how ribosomes detect defective mRNAs and trigger events leading to the degradation of the bad RNA and the incompletely translated protein product and to the recycling of the ribosome components. Working in yeast and using a number of biochemical and genetic techniques, Green’s lab showed that the protein Dom34 is critical for facilitating ribosome release from the short mRNAs that result from mRNA cleavage. Experiments showed that Dom34-mediated rescue of ribosomes from short mRNAs is an essential process for cell survival in higher eukaryotes. Speaker Biography: Rachel Green received her BS in chemistry from the University of Michigan. She then moved to Harvard to pursue her PhD in the lab of Jack Szostak where she worked on designing catalytic RNA molecules and investigating their implications for the evolution of life. As a post-doctoral fellow at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Green began to study how the ribosome translates mRNA to protein with such accuracy. Currently, Green is a Professor of Molecular Biology and Genetics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Research in her lab continues to focus on the ribosome and factors involved in the fidelity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic translation. Green is the recipient of a Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Graduate Teaching Award as well as the recipient for numerous awards for her research. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2012.
Views: 6516 iBiology
15. RNA structure and RNA synthesis
 
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For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a ubiquitous family of large biological molecules that perform multiple vital roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Together with DNA, RNA comprises the nucleic acids, which, along with proteins, constitute the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but is usually single-stranded. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (often notated using the letters G, A, U, and C for the nucleotides guanine, adenine, uracil and cytosine) that directs synthesis of specific proteins, while many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome. Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function whereby mRNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) links amino acids together to form proteins. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. Copyright by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page PPT source: All the PowerPoint material is from Sciencegeek.net. Copyright by sciencegeek.net. Link- http://www.sciencegeek.net/Biology/Powerpoints.shtml
Views: 12699 Shomu's Biology
How to Pronounce Polyadenylation
 
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This video shows you how to pronounce Polyadenylation
Polyadenylation
 
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Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a primary transcript RNA. The poly(A) tail consists of multiple adenosine monophosphates; in other words, it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases. In eukaryotes, polyadenylation is part of the process that produces mature messenger RNA (mRNA) for translation. It, therefore, forms part of the larger process of gene expression. The process of polyadenylation begins as the transcription of a gene finishes, or terminates. The 3'-most segment of the newly made pre-mRNA is first cleaved off by a set of proteins; these proteins then synthesize the poly(A) tail at the RNA's 3' end. In some genes, these proteins may add a poly(A) tail at any one of several possible sites. Therefore, polyadenylation can produce more than one transcript from a single gene (alternative polyadenylation), similar to alternative splicing. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1143 Audiopedia
MB_W16_Lecture16
 
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Table of Contents: 02:29 - Bi334 Molecular Biology Lecture 16: 15 Feb 2016 02:50 - Clicker Question 16-1 04:50 - Clicker Question 16-2 07:13 - Clicker Question 16-2 (answer) 09:27 - Eukaryotic Polysome 11:58 - Quality control 13:32 - Eukaryotic Polysome 13:46 - Quality control 14:14 - tmRNA 16:07 - Selenocysteine 21:19 - Programmed frameshifting 23:50 - Nonsense mediated decay 24:31 - Programmed frameshifting 25:06 - Nonsense mediated decay 28:32 - Non-stop mediated decay 30:38 - Antibiotics 32:33 - Protein folding 32:41 - Antibiotics 33:50 - Non-stop mediated decay 33:51 - Nonsense mediated decay 34:04 - Non-stop mediated decay 34:07 - Antibiotics 34:56 - Protein folding 36:30 - Molten globule 37:24 - Co-translational folding 38:03 - Folding pathways 41:19 - Chaperones 43:01 - Targeted proteolysis 43:59 - 26S proteasome 45:36 - Ubiquitin not just degradation 45:56 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:11 - Degradation signals 48:14 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:18 - Ubiquitin not just degradation 48:19 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:20 - Degradation signals 48:20 - Ubiquitination Mechanism 48:22 - Degradation signals 49:27 - DNA to protein 50:49 - RNA! 51:40 - ENCODE – Sept. 2012 52:25 - RNA world/Origin of Life? 54:10 - Self-replicating element 56:05 - Other nucleotides 57:31 - RNA structures 58:13 - Ribozyme 01:00:17 - In vitro selection 01:02:58 - Ribozymes 01:03:29 - An RNA world 01:04:28 - What about recombination? 01:05:22 - RNA world to present
Views: 344 Ken Stedman
Mod-04 Lec-11 Co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications of pre messenger RNA-I
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 3640 nptelhrd
V. Narry Kim (IBS and SNU) 2: Tailing in the Regulation of microRNA and Beyond
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/genetics-and-gene-regulation/regulation-of-microrna/#part-2 Part 1: microRNA Biogenesis and Regulation: Narry Kim takes us through the steps in microRNA biogenesis and explains the importance of microRNAs in regulating protein-coding mRNAs. Part 2: Tailing in the Regulation of microRNA and Beyond: Modifications, such as uridylation, of the 3’ tail of both microRNAs and mRNAs can regulate RNA function by targeting it for degradation. Talk Overview: Small RNAs (~20-30 nucleotides in length) are found in many eukaryotes and act to guard against unwanted RNA such as viruses, transposons and mRNAs. One family of small RNAs called microRNAs regulates protein-coding mRNAs by binding to the 3’UTR and repressing translation or inducing mRNA decay. microRNAs play a key role in animal development and diseases such as cancer.  In her first talk, Dr. Narry Kim gives a step-by-step description of the microRNA biogenesis pathway and the points at which the pathway can be regulated. In her second talk, Kim focuses on the regulation of microRNA function. A small percentage of microRNAs are modified with untemplated nucleotides, usually A or U, added to their 3’ end or “tail”. “Tailing” can modify the microRNA function and in some cases it can act as a molecular switch resulting in developmental and pathological transitions.  Kim’s lab was interested in knowing if tailing occurs on other RNAs such as mRNA. They developed a novel method to sequence the 3’ tail region of mRNA allowing them to measure polyA tail length and detect 3’ terminal modifications.  Interestingly, they found widespread uridylation of mRNAs and showed that 3’ polyU modification serves to mark mRNA for decay.   Speaker Biography: Narry Kim is Director of the Institute for Basic Science and a Professor at Seoul National University.  Her lab studies RNA-mediated gene regulation using stem cells, early embryos, and neuronal cells as model systems. Kim received her BA and MS degrees in microbiology from Seoul National University and her DPhil in biochemistry from Oxford University.  She was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania in Gideon Dreyfuss’ lab before returning to Seoul National University as a faculty member.   Kim is on the editorial board of a number of journals and has helped to organize many meetings on RNA biology.  Her research and contributions to the life sciences community have been recognized with numerous awards including the Women in Science Award from L’Oreal-UNESCO (2008) and the Ho-Am Prize in medicine (2009). In 2014, Kim was elected to the Korean Academy of Science and Technology and the National Academy of Sciences USA.   Learn more about Dr. Kim’s research here: http://www.narrykim.org/en/
Views: 2464 iBiology
RNA: Transcription & Processing Part 1
 
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Lecture presentation linked to a free Creative Commons (ccby) interactive electronic textbook (eText) at http://dc.uwm.edu/biosci_facbooks_bergtrom/
Views: 275 Gerry Bergtrom
IV CIIIEN 2016 - Poster Highlights
 
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En la sesión de presentación de Poster Highlights del IV Congreso Internacional sobre Investigación e Innovación en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIIIEN) se expusieron los siguientes: José Luis Muñoz Bravo: Molecular co-chaperone Cysteine String Protein-alpha (CSP-alpha) controls mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in adult mouse fibroblasts (Muñoz-Bravo, J.L., Martínez-López, J.A., Gómez-Sánchez, L., Mavillard-Saborido, F., Fernández-Chacón, R) Alberto Parras: Alteration of Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Proteins in Huntington’s Disease (A. Parras, H. Anta, M. Santos-Galindo, S. Pico, A. Elorza, I. Hernandez, N. Wang, X.W. Yang, P. Navarro, R. Mendez and J.J. Lucas) Lilian Enríquez Barreto: Role of CRTC1 in structural synaptic plasticity in the adult brain during neurodegeneration (Enríquez-Barreto L., Ussía O., Parra-Damas A., Acosta S., Rodríguez-Álvarez, J. and Saura C.A) Fabio Cavaliere: Astrocytes contribute to the spreading of pathogenic α-synuclein (Paula Ramos, Fabio Cavaliere, Benjamin Dehay, Erwan Bezard, Jose Obeso and Carlos Matute) Maria Llorens Martin: Acute stress sabotages the synaptic and morphological maturation of newborn granule neurons and triggers a unique pro-inflammatory environment in the hippocampus (Maria Llorens-Martin; Marta Bolos Noemi Pallas-Bazarra; Jeronimo Jurado-Arjona; Jesus Avila) Jose Antonio Del Rio Fernandez: Reelin expression in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and experimental models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Agata Mata, Laura Urrea, Silvia Vilches, Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Juan-Carlos Espinosa, Olivier Andréoletti, Alejandro M. Sevillano, Juan María Torres, Jesús Rodríguez Requena, Inga Zerr, Isidro Ferrer, Rosalina Gavín and José Antonio del Río) Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez: β-amyloid compromises Reelin signaling in Alzheimer’s disease (Inmaculada Cuchillo-Ibañez, Trinidad Mata-Balaguer, Valeria Balmaceda, Javier Sáez-Valero ) Assumpció Bosch Merino: Intrathecal AAVrh10 corrects biochemical and histological hallmarks of Mucopolysaccharidosis VII mice and improves bone pathology, behavior and survival (G Pagès, L Giménez-Llort, B García-Lareu, L Ariza, A Sanchez-Osuna, G García-Eguren, M Navarro, J Ruberte, C Casas, M Chillón, A Bosch) El congreso organizado por la Fundación Reina Sofía, la Fundación Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Neurológicas (Fundación CIEN) y el Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), celebró su cuarta edición y, como en años anteriores reunió a más de un centenar de expertos nacionales e internacionales que analizaron los principales avances en el conocimiento y tratamiento de las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, fundamentalmente alzhéimer, párkinson y huntington. El IV Congreso Internacional de Investigación e Innovación en Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIIIEN) se desarrolló los días 21, 22 y 23 de septiembre en la Oficina de Propiedad Intelectual de la Unión Europea (EUIPO) de Alicante.
Views: 126 CIBERNED
Gene expression
 
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Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism. In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype. The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype. Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's shape, or that act as enzymes catalysing specific metabolic pathways characterising the organism. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1087 Audiopedia
Medical vocabulary: What does Healthy People Programs mean
 
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What does Healthy People Programs mean in English?
Mod-07 Lec-24 Gene Regulation during Drosophila Development
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 13062 nptelhrd
Mod-01 Lec-03 Diversity in general transcription factors
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 3685 nptelhrd
Transcriptomes: General principles from comparison of worm, fly and human - Robert Waterston
 
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June 20-21, 2012 - Genomics of model organisms and human biology: Insights from the modENCODE Project More: http://www.genome.gov/27549319
Mod-08 Lec-31 Eukaryotic protein expression systems - II
 
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Eukaryotic Gene Expression:Basics & Benefits by Prof.P N RANGARAJAN,Department of Biochemistry,IISC Bangalore. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 2110 nptelhrd
Lec 21 | MIT 7.012 Introduction to Biology, Fall 2004
 
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Virology/Tumor Viruses (Prof. Robert A. Weinberg) View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/7-012F04 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 16823 MIT OpenCourseWare
8.4 MECANISMOS DE GENERACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD DE LINFOCITOS T Y B
 
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8.4 MECANISMOS DE GENERACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD DE LINFOCITOS T Y B. Inmunología Humana. Alfredo Corell Almuzara. Universidad de Valladolid. Contenidos: * Expresión de las Igs en el BCR: - Exclusión alélica. - Expresión de sIg ó mIg. - Cambios de Isotipo.
Views: 23244 UVa_Online
14 6
 
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Views: 3 xinbo huang
Vector (molecular biology)
 
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In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed. A vector containing foreign DNA is termed recombinant DNA. The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly used vectors are plasmids. Common to all engineered vectors are an origin of replication, a multicloning site, and a selectable marker. The vector itself is generally a DNA sequence that consists of an insert and a larger sequence that serves as the "backbone" of the vector. The purpose of a vector which transfers genetic information to another cell is typically to isolate, multiply, or express the insert in the target cell. Vectors called expression vectors specifically are for the expression of the transgene in the target cell, and generally have a promoter sequence that drives expression of the transgene. Simpler vectors called transcription vectors are only capable of being transcribed but not translated: they can be replicated in a target cell but not expressed, unlike expression vectors. Transcription vectors are used to amplify their insert. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2644 Audiopedia
BGH VS XXX
 
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Views: 70 Teriq Perkins
Cell nucleus
 
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In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression — the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nucleoskeleton (which includes nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required that regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. The interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2544 Audiopedia
HINAn saunailta 17.5.2014
 
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www.hina.fi - höntsäkiekkoilun AAtelia joka huipentuu pelikauden 2013 - 2014 osalta saunailtaan...
Views: 385 Jari Harju

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