Search results “Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them”
Human Defence Systems Against Pathogens | Biology for All | FuseSchool
Pathogens are disease causing microorganisms, that our body has many defence mechanisms against. The skin is the first physical barrier, providing a protective layer that is hard to penetrate. We also have sebaceous glands that secrete acids, thus preventing the growth of pathogens. Pathogens can enter through our mouth, nose and eyes quite easily. Saliva, mucus and tears contain lysozyme enzymes that break down the cell wall of many bacteria. Our respiratory system then has it's own defences from nasal hair to mucus to enzymes. Hydrochloric acid inside our stomach kills many harmful microorganisms that enter in our food and drink. Our blood also has a great defence system; blood contains platelets and fibrin which causes blood to clot and scabs to form, sealing off cuts from the outside. Our blood also has another fantastic weapon; white blood cells. These can hunt down and destroy pathogens, they can ingest them, and they can neutralise the effect of the pathogen toxins on the body. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: [email protected]
How pathogens overcome host defence mechanisms
This host pathogen interaction lecture explains the process how pathogens overcome host defense mechanisms of human body and it also explains the methods of eluding host immunity by bacteria. For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html
Views: 19859 Shomu's Biology
New Antimicrobial Strategy Silences NDM-1 Resistance Gene in Pathogens - ICAAC 2014
Researchers have created a synthetic DNA analog that can bind to and silence the gene responsible for NDM-1, a severe form of antibiotic resistance that can make some bacteria resistant to almost all antibiotics. Bruce Geller, Oregon State University, Corvallis David E. Greenberg, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
webinar recording: a strategy to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria
Approved drugs containing thiols as inhibitors of Metallo-β-Lactamases Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is one of the major threats regarding human health. An alarming trend is the spread of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) among gram-negative pathogens that transfer resistance against almost all β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The development of new anti-infective agents remains one of the most significant demands in modern medicine. In this webinar we show the development of an assay platform consisting of three orthogonal assays: a fluorescence-based functional assay, thermal shift assay and in cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The reliability of the system was evaluated on three different class B MBLs: New-Delhi-Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1), Verona-Integron-Encoded-Metallo-β-Lactamase 1 (VIM-1) and Impenemase-7 (IMP-7). The aim of this work is to find an already approved drug which restores the activity of β-lactam antibiotic by protecting it from hydrolysis through the MBL. We could find four drugs, which inhibit three clinically important MBLs, namely Captopril, Thiorphan, Dimercaprol and Tiopronin. This is a good starting point for the development of potent MBL inhibitors, with the primary optimization goal being the uptake and activity in pathogens. This will be modeled in SeeSAR. http://www.biosolveit.de/SeeSAR
Views: 384 BioSolveITTutorials
Interferons structure and functions - This immunology lecture explains about the chemical properties of interferons and the role of interferons in the immune response to fight against infections. Interferons (IFNs) are a bunch of signaling proteins made and launched through host cells in keeping with the presence of pathogens, comparable to viruses, micro organism, parasites, or tumor cells. This lecture will tell you the properties and functions of interferon in immune diffence. Interferons are also known as IFN. Please watch this video lecture throughly to know the details about the interferons. For more information, log on to- http://www.shomusbiology.com/ Get Shomu's Biology DVD set here- http://www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.com/bio-materials.html Remember Shomu’s Biology is created to spread the knowledge of life science and biology by sharing all this free biology lectures video and animation presented by Suman Bhattacharjee in YouTube. All these tutorials are brought to you for free. Please subscribe to our channel so that we can grow together. You can check for any of the following services from Shomu’s Biology- Buy Shomu’s Biology lecture DVD set- www.shomusbiology.com/dvd-store Shomu’s Biology assignment services – www.shomusbiology.com/assignment -help Join Online coaching for CSIR NET exam – www.shomusbiology.com/net-coaching We are social. Find us on different sites here- Our Website – www.shomusbiology.com Facebook page- https://www.facebook.com/ShomusBiology/ Twitter - https://twitter.com/shomusbiology SlideShare- www.slideshare.net/shomusbiology Google plus- https://plus.google.com/113648584982732129198 LinkedIn - https://www.linkedin.com/in/suman-bhattacharjee-2a051661 Youtube- https://www.youtube.com/user/TheFunsuman Thank you for watching the video lecture on interferons
Views: 33960 Shomu's Biology
How To Cleanse Your Body
Diseases and symptoms associated with an unhealthy colon. More information normalcolon.com. Support Me By Purchasing Through Amazon. Buy anything on Amazon http://amzn.to/2jeWOSP (Amazon Affiliate link) Cleansing the body as a whole all comes down to cleansing the colon, as 90% of diseases are linked to an unhealthy colon. With bad eating habits and antibiotic use, the colon becomes unhealthy. Those who cleanse and balance their internal environment are able to focus on the origin of their demise instead of treating the symptoms of any particular ailment. There are a large number of diseases and symptoms connected to an unhealthy colon, including, allergies, cancer, colitis, constipation, depression, diverticulitis, fatigue, flu susceptibility, leaky gut syndrome, cancer, Crohn's disease, colon polyps, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), spastic colon, regional ileitis, acne, eczema, hypertension, varicose veins, chronic fatigue syndrome, autoimmune disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, hypothyroidism, endocrine disorders, emotional disorders, and more. The colon is a muscular tube that is about 6 feet long and home to more than 400 species of bacteria. A healthy colon performs peristalsis, while also absorbing electrolytes and water from fecal matter. The first step to cleansing the body and in turn the colon is to stop ingesting toxic food, as it forms mucoid plaque over time. Further up the digestive system, low stomach acid promotes undigested food. In response to undigested food, the intestines secrete mucus in order to entrap this material and remove it safely from the body. Bacteria in the gut perform a large number of beneficial actions, including waste management and immune system function. However, pathogenic bacteria cause a wide range of health maladies. Instead of addressing the true cause of most diseases, intestinal filth, typical Western medical doctors prescribe antibiotics in order to kill off these pathogenic bacteria. Those who consume antibiotics in order to treat symptoms of a particular disease destroy their delicate bacterial balance. Treat pathogenic bacteria with iodine instead. If probiotics aren't consumed immediately after an antibiotic regimen, other pathogenic bacteria and mycelial fungal Candida can take over. Other factors that affect bacterial levels and throw them out of balance include, antacids, corticosteroids, NSAIDs, over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, white sugar, anti-histamines, chlorinated water, carbonated drinks, fluorinated water, and coffee. You are your bacteria. The microbiome determines overall characteristics unique to an organism as a whole. Those who have an optimized microbiome are in turn healthier people. A healthy body should only have three meals inside of it at any given time. In general, those who have a transit time of 24 hours or less are relatively healthy. Mucoid plaque provides a home to pathogenic bacteria, mycelial candida, and parasites. Mucoid plaque also causes autointoxication, as its presence constantly bathes the intestines in putrid matter. First remove the mucoid plaque before anything else. Candida generates hyphae and secretes phospholipase enzymes, causing Leaky gut syndrome, contributing to allergies, kidney disease, acne, psoriasis, arthritis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, fibromyalgia, multiple joint pain syndrome, dermatitis, cancer, headaches, and other autoimmune disorders. Other diseases associated with reduced colon function include colitis, Crohn's disease, spastic colon, otherwise known as irritable bowel syndrome. A clean body overall that has adequate nutrition and waste removal can maintain a healthy state. Ultimately, disease doesn't exist in a perfectly healthy body. Cleanse the body with a colon cleanse, a parasite cleanse, a Candida overgrowth removal, probiotics, a healthy lifestyle, and natural medicine treatments or supplementation. Step 1, colon cleanse. Psyllium husk and bentonite clay shakes should remove mucoid plaque from the intestines. In addition, using enzymes, demulcents, expectorants, diatomaceous earth, herbal preparations, Epsom salts, and colonics or enemas can assist in the process. Step 2, parasite cleanse. Use of herbs like black walnut hulls, wormwood, and cloves, as well as food grade diatomaceous earth will kill both parasites and their eggs. Step 3, correct a Candida overgrowth. Treat a Candida overgrowth with a three month program that includes dietary changes, the use of antifungals, and the use of drugs that combat Candida's pleomorphic fungal form. Step 4, repopulate the colon with probiotics. Since probiotics perform the majority of immune function and contribute to good health overall, supplementing with them is a good idea. Step 5, live a healthy lifestyle. normalcolon.com/
Views: 18157 Normal Colon
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Bioconversion by Environmental and Host-Associated Bacteria
Presented At: Microbiology & Immunology 2018 Presented By: Terence Crofts, PhD - Pathology and Immunology Postdoctoral Scholar, Dantas Lab, Washington University in St. Louis Speaker Biography: Dr. Crofts is currently a post-doctoral scholar at Washington University in St. Louis working with Dr. Gautam Dantas. One focus of his research has been the metabolic fate of antibiotics in the environment, a project that ties together antibiotic resistance and bacterial metabolism. A second focus is how early life antibiotic therapy alters the developing human gut microbiota in infants as well as the host immune system using a gnotobiotic mouse model I have developed. A third focus has been studying how the human microbiome interacts with pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, with a focus on the mechanisms underlying drug toxicity. Prior to this he received his Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of California, Berkeley, working with Dr. Michi Taga studying how bacterial producers of vitamin B12 analogs use enzyme-substrate specificity to avoid incorporating incorrect lower ligands from their environment. He began his career earning joint B.S. degrees in Molecular and Cellular Biology and Chemistry from the University of Illinois, where he completed an honor's research project on T-cell receptor specificity in the lab of Dr. David Kranz. He is looking forward to starting next fall at Northwestern University as a Research Assistant Professor, where he will continue to focus on understanding how the gut microbiota affects the efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals, including small molecules and biologics, as well as study how microbiota in the environment respond to and modify/degrade antimicrobials. Webinar: Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Bioconversion by Environmental and Host-Associated Bacteria Webinar Abstract: The soil microbiome can produce, resist, or degrade antibiotics and even catabolize them. Resistance genes are widely distributed in the soil and may act as a reservoir for pathogen antibiotic resistance. Work done in the Dantas lab has identified high diversity of genes encoding antibiotic resistance across all antibiotic classes, but generally these genes are not at great risk of mobilization to pathogens. However, the sub-group of resistant, culturable Proteobacteria show both resistance to high concentrations of antibiotics and resistance across many antibiotic classes. These highly resistant Proteobacteria are related to human pathogens, and show evidence of increased horizontal gene transfer of resistance genes. Interestingly, many of these Proteobacteria are not only antibiotic resistant, they have also been found to be capable of antibiotic catabolism. Little is known about the enzymes, mechanisms, and pathways involved in antibiotic catabolism. We describe a pathway for penicillin catabolism in four strains of Proteobacteria. Genomic and transcriptomic sequencing revealed β -lactamase, amidase, and phenylacetic acid catabolon upregulation. Knocking out part of the phenylacetic acid catabolon or an apparent penicillin utilization operon (put) resulted in loss of penicillin catabolism in one isolate. A hydrolase from the put operon was found to degrade in vitro benzylpenicilloic acid, the β -lactamase penicillin product. To test the generality of this strategy, an Escherichia coli strain was engineered to co-express a β -lactamase and a penicillin amidase or the put operon, enabling it to grow using penicillin or benzylpenicilloic acid, respectively. Elucidation of additional pathways may allow bioremediation of antibiotic-contaminated soils and discovery of antibiotic-remodeling enzymes with industrial utility. Learning Objectives: 1. Antibiotics and pharmaceuticals are not privileged molecules, they can be modified or catabolized by microbes. 2. Metabolism of these molecules in unexpected ways can impact human health. Earn PACE/CME Credits: 1. Make sure you’re a registered member of LabRoots (https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-immunology-2018) 2. Watch the webinar on YouTube above or on the LabRoots Website (https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-immunology-2018) 3. Click Here to get your PACE (Expiration date – September 13, 2020 01:30 PM) - https://www.labroots.com/credit/pace-credits/2971/third-party LabRoots on Social: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LabRootsInc Twitter: https://twitter.com/LabRoots LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/labroots Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/labrootsinc Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/labroots/ SnapChat: labroots_inc
Views: 20 LabRoots
Ending the War on Microbes | Bernat Olle | TEDxCambridge
For decades, we have fought a war against bacteria, with antibiotics as our primary weapons. These drugs have been very successful because they effectively kill the bacteria while apparently sparing us. Unless, of course, we have been wrong about what is “us.” We now know that humans are home to an ecosystem of trillions of beneficial microbes – the human microbiome – that affect our susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disease. Our health is intimately linked to theirs. We have recently come to understand that antibiotics indiscriminately kill both pathogens as well as these beneficial microbes. War is unpredictable, and waging war against our microbes has unpredictable consequences. Bernat Olle argues that we must develop new medicines that nurture this ecosystem of beneficial microbes instead of carpet-bombing it. Dr. Bernat Olle is a co-founder and COO of Vedanta Biosciences, a Boston-based biotechnology company developing a novel class of therapeutics that modulate the human microbiome, which is the community of trillions of microbes that live inside and on us, for the treatment of immune and infectious diseases. He has been named “Innovator of the Year” in Spain by the MIT Technology Review “Innovators under 35″ awards. He completed his doctoral work at the Chemical Engineering Department at MIT with Drs. Danny Wang and Alan Hatton, where he co-developed novel methods for large scale culture of bacteria. During his graduate work, Dr. Olle was awarded the “la Caixa” fellowship by the King of Spain. He received his B.Eng. from Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain, his M.S. and PhD from MIT, and his MBA from the MIT Sloan School of Management. He has authored several research and review articles, including publications in Nature and Nature Biotechnology. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 2363 TEDx Talks
Nano-antibiotics: A rational design of functional nanoparticles to combat bacterial infection
International Conference On Nanomedicine And Nanobiotechnology Sept 28-30 2016 in Paris www.premc.org Nano-antibiotics: A rational design of functional nanoparticles to combat bacterial infection Rabah Boukherroub Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, University Lille1, Avenue Poincaré – BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France Complications related to infectious diseases have significantly reduced, particularly in the developed countries, due to the availability and use of a wide variety of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. However, excessive use of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents increased the number of drug resistant pathogens, and this has resulted in a significant threat to public health. The inexorable rise in the incidence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens, coupled with the low rate of emergence of new clinically useful antibiotics, has refocused attention on finding alternatives to overcome antimicrobial resistance. Novel strategies aiming to reduce the amount of antibiotics, but able to prevent and treat animal and human infections should be investigated, evidenced and approved. Among the various approaches, the use of nanotechnology (engineered nanoparticles) is currently the most promising strategy to overcome microbial drug resistance. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can surmount existing drug resistance mechanisms, including decreased uptake and increased efflux of drug from the microbial cell, biofilm formation, and intracellular bacteria. Moreover, loading multiple antimicrobial agents on the same nanoparticle makes the development of resistance unlikely. Finally, nanoparticles can target antimicrobial agents to the site of infection, so that higher doses of drug are given at the infected site, thereby overcoming resistance. Despite considerable recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying bacterial infections, and in the development of nanostructured materials displaying antibacterial properties and activity against biofilms, the quest to design and fabricate new antibacterial nanostructures remains a high research priority. In this presentation, after an overview on the different nanomaterials possessing antimicrobial activities, I will discuss the use of nanosized drug carriers to efficiently administer antibiotics by improving their pharmacokinetics and bioaccumulation, while reducing the adverse effects of antibiotics.
Views: 1154 PremC
Probiotics - A quick trip inside our guts!
http://www.probiotixfoods.com for natural probiotics products and more specific information about probiotics. Good bacteria? Yes, it is not a typo. When most of us use the word bacteria, the first thing that comes to our mind are diseases, infections and illnesses. Fortunately, that is a common mistake made due to the fact that most of us simply are yet to know the importance of these friendly bacteria (Probiotics) and how the benefits which they provide us with can make substantial changes into our everyday lives. The ultimate goal of ProBiotixtm Foods is to inform and teach as well as to provide our customers with the highest quality products to help you develop a healthy gut. We naturally already have billions of bacteria living in our gut. We can basically divide the general term bacteria into three simplified categories, which are: Undesirable bacteria (potentially harmful pathogens), Nonpathogenic-Noncommittal (neutral, neither good nor bad), Helpful or desirable bacteria (Probiotics). Since we all want to have a healthy and strong immune system thus a strong and balanced everyday life, let us get to know our "new" friends a little better. The word "Probiotic" means "for life". [From Greek pro, supporting + bios, life] Establishing a Probiotic gastrointestinal environment refers to promoting and maintaining these friendly microorganisms in our gut that prevent the undesirable pathogenic microorganisms from staying and reproducing inside our gut. The friendly flora also helps us digest the food we eat. To be effective, a Probiotic must increase/multiply itself in the host's gut, while decreasing/destroying the number and the effect of the disease-producing organisms that are present in the gut. Because we at ProBiotixtm Foods are aware of the fact that simply having a healthy diet alone is not enough to stimulate the growth of Probiotics, we offer you the ultimate functional foods (foods which have health-promoting and/or disease-preventing properties along with nutrients) and the high quality supplements packed with Dr. Shahani's highest quality Probiotics. In our case the foods and supplements contain the necessary amount of Probiotics to be taken daily in order to make sure our gut stays well populated and consequently our immune system can perform at full capacity. The job that is performed by the Probiotics is so important that without them life would be impossible. For that reason we are discovering and further exploring new revolutionary ways to help them be strong, reproduce, and help us. That is the goal of our products. We aim to aid those people who are looking for a more balanced and healthy life. To know more about the proven Probiotics supplements that we use visit the about us link of our website. Probiotics used to increase health have been researched for over 50 years, however not until the last five or so years have they become extremely popular. The reason for the popularity of Probiotics is due to the benefits that they can provide. These benefits are based upon proven and positive results from university conducted research.
Views: 248603 ProBiotixFoods
Inaugural Lectures: Plants have immune systems too! | University of East Anglia (UEA)
UEA’s Prof Cyril Zipfel explains his research into plants’ immune systems and how this knowledge can be used to design biotechnological strategies to combat plant diseases that represent a global challenge to agriculture. Part of UEA's Inaugural Lecture series: www.uea.ac.uk/events
Views: 693 UEA
Support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/speedpharmacology Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SpeedPharmacology/ Get Speed Pharmacology Merch Here: https://teespring.com/stores/speed-pharmacology **************************************************************************************************** This is Part 1 of a 2-Part lecture on Antibiotics. Topics covered include: classification of antibiotics; cell wall structure of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Mycobacteria; mechanism of action and side effects of Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors: Beta-lactams (Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Monobactams), Beta-lactamases (Avibactam, Clavulanic acid, Sulbactam, Tazobactam), Fosfomycin, Cycloserine, Vancomycin, Bacitracin, Antimycobacterial drugs (Isoniazid, Ethambutol), mechanism of action and side effects of Cell Membrane Integrity Disruptors: Daptomycin, Polymyxins. Source of diagram at 6:49 : http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/11/16
Views: 54549 Speed Pharmacology
Immune System, part 1: Crash Course A&P #45
Our final episodes of Anatomy & Physiology explore the way your body keeps all that complex, intricate stuff alive and healthy -- your immune system. The immune system’s responses begin with physical barriers like skin and mucous membranes, and when they’re not enough, there are phagocytes -- the neutrophils and macrophages. It also features the awesomely named natural killer cells and the inflammatory response, and we'll explain how all of these elements work together to save the day if you happen to slip on a banana peel. Crash Course A&P poster: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-anatomy-and-physiology-poster Table of Contents Physical Barriers Like Skin and Mucous Membranes 2:01 Phagocytes: Neutrophils and Macrophages 3:17 Natural Killer Cells 4:29 Inflammatory Response 5:29 *** "Reformat" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark, Eric Kitchen, Jessica Wode, Jeffrey Thompson, Steve Marshall, Moritz Schmidt, Robert Kunz, Tim Curwick, Jason A Saslow, SR Foxley, Elliot Beter, Jacob Ash, Christian, Jan Schmid, Jirat, Christy Huddleston, Daniel Baulig, Chris Peters, Anna-Ester Volozh, Ian Dundore, Caleb Weeks -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 2394700 CrashCourse
The Rise and Control of Gram Negative Resistance
The launch of new antibiotics in the 1980s led many in the scientific field to believe that fight against bacteria had been won. Since then, at least one group of bacteria known as Gram-negatives (which includes pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired pneumonia and bloodstream infections as well as E. coli and Salmonella have developed a variety of mechanisms that make them multi-drug resistant.The result is that it is now commonplace to encounter gram-negative infections susceptible only to one drug: colistin, an antibiotic all but abandoned in the 1970s and 1980s due to toxic side-effects.Participants will discuss how antibiotic-resistant gram-negatives are on the rise in newly industrialized countries, the threat they pose to the antibiotic revolution of the 20th century and one country's nationwide intervention to control an antibiotic-resistant outbreak in healthcare facilities. David Livermore, PhD, HPA Microbiol. Services Colindale, London, United Kingdom Mitchell Schwaber, MD, Israel Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv, Israel
BIOCREST 2017: Multidrug Resistant Enteric Pathogens by Bhabatosh Das
Bhabatosh Das, Ph.D Assistant Professor,Centre for Human Microbial Ecology, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute -THSTI, Delhi Emergence of antimicrobial resistant Gram-negative bacteria have created a serious global health crisis and threaten the effectiveness of most, if not all, antibiotics commonly used to prevent and treat bacterial infections. There is a dearth of detailed studies on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in India. Here, we have isolated and examined AMR patterns of 1097 enteric pathogens and investigated complete genome sequences of seven representative genera, which in aggregate encode resistance against 22 antibiotics representing nine distinct drug classes. The enteric pathogens examined in this study were isolated from two regions of India. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. High-throughput DNA sequencing was used to determine the genetic basis of AMR. The resistance traits were confirmed de novo. This study revealed that greater than 98% isolates are resistant against greater than or equal to 2 antibiotics, approx. 21% isolates resistant against greater than or equal to 10 antibiotics and approx. 0.3% resistant against approx. 20 antibiotics. Analyses of the genome of 30 AMR pathogens revealed presence of replicative and/or integrative mobile genetic elements, which are physically linked with resistance traits.These elements are therefore appear to be responsible for disseminating drug resistance among bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. The present study provides a comprehensive insight into the genomics of AMR isolates, which would be useful to understand the genetics of resistance traits, evolution of pathogens and decide specific drug regimen against enteric infection
Are We Ready for the Next Pandemic? - with Peter Piot
2018 marks the 100th anniversary of the deadly Spanish flu. How prepared are we today if another global pandemic should strike? Subscribe for regular science videos: http://bit.ly/RiSubscRibe Watch the Q&A: https://youtu.be/Qz1mvraetEU Peter Piot discusses the risk of another global pandemic in our interconnected world and discusses the shortcomings of the global response to the West African Ebola outbreak and, drawing on his experience combating HIV/AIDS, he will highlight the need to focus on prevention and preparedness for future health threats. Peter Piot is the Director of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and a Handa Professor of Global Health. He is the first Chair to lead Her Majesty’s Government’s Strategic Coherence of ODA-funded Research (SCOR) Board. He is Vice-Chair of the board of the Global Health Innovative Technology Fund in Tokyo, Vice-Chair of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) board, Chair of the Global Burden of Disease Independent Advisory Committee and Chair of the King Baudouin Foundation US. He is a member of the board for the African Health Research Institute, in Durban, and the Public Health Foundation of India and a member of the Oxford Martin Commission on Future Generations. He was the Chair of the MRC Global Health Group and a member of the MRC Strategy Board. Previously he was President of the International AIDS Society, Chair of the WHO Ebola Science Committee and Chair of the European Forum for Forward Looking Activities. This evening discourse was filmed in the Ri on 29 June 2018. --- A very special thank you to our Patreon supporters who help make these videos happen, especially: Alessandro Mecca, Ashok Bommisetti, avraham chein, bestape, Elizabeth Greasley, Greg Nagel, Lester Su, Rebecca Pan, Robert D Finfrock and Will Knott. --- The Ri is on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/TheRoyalInstitution and Twitter: http://twitter.com/ri_science and Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/royalinstitution and Tumblr: http://ri-science.tumblr.com/ Our editorial policy: http://www.rigb.org/home/editorial-policy Subscribe for the latest science videos: http://bit.ly/RiNewsletter
Views: 8207 The Royal Institution
Rise of the Superbug - Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: Dr. Karl Klose at TEDxSanAntonio
Please note: Due to a power outage at the event, there is a gap in the middle section of this talk. We do not have capture of that section of the talk, but wanted to make as much of Dr. Klose's talk available as possible. As founder and director of the South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, with 19 infectious disease laboratories, Dr. Klose's research focuses on understanding bacterial pathogenesis in order to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. For more information on Klose: http://bio.utsa.edu/faculty-staff/dr.-karl-klose/#.UN4kdYnjlvI Overview: The Superbug does exist. Dr. Klose offers profiles of bacteria and their sinister ways of evolving into antibiotic-resistant menaces. A cleverly designed slideshow accompanies Dr. Klose. 'No more meat treated with antibiotics' might be your take-away mantra. About TEDx, x = independently organized event In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized (subject to certain rules and regulations). Video Opener by Rod Guajardo foursandyfeet.com. Music: MUSICXXX Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0. Help us caption and translate this video on Amara.org: http://www.amara.org/en/v/BWQo/
Views: 114863 TEDx Talks
Rethinking the antibiotic arsenal: a new strategy for the microbiome | Margaret Riley | TEDxUNE
One of the world’s preeminent antibiotic bacterial resistance researchers, Margaret Riley, takes us through one of science and society’s most urgent topics: the search for novel antibiotics. In this talk that describes our medicine’s current ability to fend off resistant bacterial infections, Dr. Riley discusses her work in developing a novel therapeutic agent that may save millions of lives. Between policy, scientific advancement, and some quirky microbiology comedy, this talk is sure to enthusiastically explain one of society’s most pressing issues. Dr. Margaret (Peg) Riley, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. She received her Ph.D. at Harvard University in 1991 and joined the faculty at Yale University, where she was granted tenure and remained for 15 years while developing an internationally renowned research program in antimicrobial drug discovery. She has published over 100 articles and edited five books in her research area. In 2008, Dr. Riley created the Massachusetts Academy of Sciences, a non-profit organization whose mission is to increase levels of civic science literacy. She served as its President for six years and engaged in science outreach and education reform efforts aimed at engaging middle and high school students in independent research experiences and providing their teachers with professional development opportunities in inquiry-based teaching methods. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 969 TEDx Talks
Pharmaceutical Drugs: Inhibitors and the Nature of Disease
We live in a time where there is much skepticism towards modern medicine. This stems purely from ignorance, however, and there are those who capitalize on this to sell an unbelievable array of alternative medicines that, almost without exception, do absolutely nothing. Let's take a look at the kinds of diseases that exist, what they are on the molecular level, and the scientific strategies available to combat them. We don't need to defend the pharmaceutical industry, but we definitely need to understand that the science behind pharmaceutical drugs is the only strategy available that truly addresses the cause of any medical condition in an informed way, and is therefore the only intelligent approach to treatment. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe [email protected] http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://professordaveexplains.com http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExpl... http://twitter.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Computer simulations unlock the secrets of antibiotic resistance
In a strategy to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria, theoretical biologists at Los Alamos National Laboratory are simulating how some microbes use protein structures to flush out the drugs before they kill the bacteria. At an atom level, the simulations show the efflux pumps in action, giving researchers a new tool for figuring out how to disable the pumps. That would allow some currently powerless antibiotics to once again cure a range of public health threats, including bronchitis, pink eye, ear infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. Related material http://www.lanl.gov/newsroom/science-columns/science-on-the-hill/2018/supercomputers-tackle-antibiotic-resistance1.php http://www.lanl.gov/discover/news-release-archive/2017/December/1204-computer-simulations-drug-resistance.php
How To Protect Your Microbiome?
Best Gluten free probiotics - Biotic Defense https://www.glutenfreesociety.org/shop/supplements/immune-support/biotic-defense/ and Ultra Biotic Defense https://www.glutenfreesociety.org/shop/supplements/immune-support/ultra-biotic-defense-3/ How To Protect Your Microbiome? Join Dr. Osborne to discuss what to do to preserve your health and keep a balanced microbiome. It's not just about supplementing with probiotics. Fiber, non-inflammatory foods, organic, chlorine avoidance, and much more in this episode of Pick Dr. Osborne's Brain... Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DoctorPeterO... Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/docosborne/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/drosborne Twitter: https://twitter.com/glutenology *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This video is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Additionally, this information is not intended to replace the advice of your physician. Dr. Osborne is not a medical doctor. He does not treat or diagnose disease. He offers nutritional support to people seeking an alternative from traditional medicine. Dr. Osborne is licensed with the Pastoral Medical Association.
Views: 5107 Dr. Osborne
WHO published first list of antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens”
The World Health Organization (WHO) published Monday its first ever list of antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens” and called on governments to help increase the research and development of new antibiotics to address the growing problem. The list names 12 families of bacteria that pose the greatest threat to human health divided into three categories according to the urgency of need for new antibiotics.
Views: 105 New China TV
The Growing Threat of Multidrug-Resistant Gonorrhea
Since antibiotics were first used for treatment of gonorrhea, the organism has progressively developed resistance to the sulfa drugs prescribed to treat it. Currently, CDC STD treatment guidelines recommend dual therapy with a cephalosporin antibiotic (ceftriaxone is preferred) and either azithromycin or doxycycline to treat all uncomplicated gonococcal infections among adults and adolescents in the United States. This session of Grand Rounds explored the development of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a growing public health concern because the United States gonorrhea control strategy relies on effective antibiotic therapy. Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/CommentPolicy.html This video can also be viewed at http://www.cdc.gov/about/grand-rounds/archives/2012/May2012.htm
Antibiotics: Is a Strong Offense the Best Defense? Part 1 (MWV21)
Will we become defenseless against bacteria? Will bacteria always find a way to infect and even kill us? The emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria poses an enormous problem around the world. Scientists believe that the overuse of antibiotics is increasing the appearance of these pathogens. In the US, increasing casualties resulting from drug resistant staphylococcus infections received wide media attention. While antibiotics only work on bacterial infections, many patients and doctors regard antibiotics as a front-line form of treating any type of infection. Antibiotics are often prescribed because the specific pathogen that is causing an illness is often difficult to determine. In some cases they are used as a preventative measure. But is this the best defense? Are there ways to beat bacteria at their own game? On September 18, 2008 at the Koshland Science Museum in Washington, D.C., Dr. Stuart Levy, professor of Molecular Biology and Microbiology at Tufts University School of Medicine and Dr. Linda Tollefson, Assistant Commissioner for Science at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, discussed how to optimize antibiotic use and how to minimize the emergence of drug resistant pathogens. In part 1 of this 3 part video series, Dr. Levy discusses the basics of microbial pathogens, bacteria, and antibiotic resistance. And, Dr. Tollefson outlines the various types and classes of antibiotic drugs, approved uses, and current levels of effectiveness. Dr. Levy is Professor of Molecular Biology and Microbiology at Tufts University School of Medicine where he is the Director of the Center for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance. He directs research on mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance. Stuart Levy is also Staff Physician at the Tufts Medical Center and he also serves as the president of The International Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. Dr. Tollefson is Assistant Commissioner for Science at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). She previously served as Deputy Director of the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), where she led CVM's efforts to implement a risk-based approach to address antimicrobial resistance, fulfilling a 2001 Congressional mandate, and was instrumental in the founding of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria. Tollefson also served as Chief of Epidemiology in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition where she successfully investigated numerous outbreaks of food borne disease and served as liaison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Views: 1467 MicrobeWorld
David Baltimore (Caltech) Part 1: Introduction to Viruses and HIV
https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/human-immunodeficiency-virus/ Lecture Overview: In this set of lectures, I describe the threat facing the world from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a bold proposal on how we might meet the challenge of eliminating this disease by engineering the immune system. In part 1, I provide a broad introduction to viruses, describing their basic properties and my own history of studying the replication of RNA viruses which led to the discovery of reverse transcriptase. I also illustrate the distinguishing features of equilibrium viruses (e.g. the common cold) that have adapted to co-exist with their host and non-equilibrium viruses (e.g. HIV) that have recently jumped from another species, are not adapted to the new host, and which can lead to disastrous outcomes (e.g. loss of immune function with potential lethality in the case of HIV). In part 2, I describe the growing health problem that is facing the world with the spread of HIV and the limitations of current drug therapies and vaccine strategies. We need new ideas for tackling this problem. Here and in the next segment, I describe bold strategies of using gene therapy to conquer HIV, The approach that I describe in this segment involves gene therapy to produce short hairpin RNAs (siRNA) that target the destruction of a critical co-receptor of HIV, which the viruses that needs to infect cells. I discuss initial proof-of-principle experiments that suggest this approach might be feasible and the next steps needed to develop this idea into a real therapy. In this last segment, I describe another gene therapy strategy for HIV in which we propose to develop antibody-like proteins that can be expressed by a patient's B cells and will target the HIV virus for destruction. To achieve this objective, hematopoietic (blood) stem cells must to be targeted with the gene, which will ultimately develop into B cells that express the therapeutic molecule. The ultimate goal is to produce a life-long supply of anti-HIV neutralizing antibodies. In this lecture, I describe the molecular methods underlying this strategy and a development path from proof-of-principle studies in mouse to safe trials in humans. This project receives funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Speaker Bio: After serving as President of the California Institute of Technology for nine years, in 2006 David Baltimore was appointed President Emeritus and the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology. Born in New York City, he received his B.A. in Chemistry from Swarthmore College in 1960 and a Ph.D. in 1964 from Rockefeller University, where he returned to serve as President from 1990-91 and faculty member until 1994. For almost 30 years, Baltimore was a faculty member at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While his early work was on poliovirus, in 1970 he identified the enzyme reverse transcriptase in tumor virus particles, thus providing strong evidence for a process of RNA to DNA conversion, the existence of which had been hypothesized some years earlier. Baltimore and Howard Temin (with Renato Dulbecco, for related research) shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery, which provided the key to understanding the life-cycle of HIV. In the following years, he has contributed widely to the understanding of cancer, AIDS and the molecular basis of the immune response. His present research focuses on control of inflammatory and immune responses as well as on the use of gene therapy methods to treat HIV and cancer in a program called "Engineering Immunity". Baltimore played an important role in creating a consensus on national science policy regarding recombinant DNA research. He served as founding director of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research at MIT from 1982 until 1990. He co-chaired the 1986 National Academy of Sciences committee on a National Strategy for AIDS and was appointed in 1996 to head the National Institutes of Health AIDS Vaccine Research Committee. In addition to receiving the Nobel Prize, Baltimore's numerous honors include the 1999 National Medal of Science, election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1974, the Royal Society of London, and the French Academy of Sciences. For 2007/8, he is President of the AAAS. He has published more than 600 peer-reviewed articles.
Views: 8008 iBiology
What do probiotics really do
Probiotics work through many different ways. They may be directly anti-microbial, change the digestive system environment to be less hospitable to pathogenic microbes, fight against gut permeability, stop pathogenic bacteria from holding onto the epithelial, and regulate inflammatory pathways. Saul Marcus, ND Http://drsaulmarcus.com Information summarized from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ibd.20602/full http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ibd.20525/full
Views: 328 Saul Marcus, ND
The Basics of Antibiotic Resistance: Focus on Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)
Learn from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the latest information on preventing and treating Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Objectives *Review common bacteria identified in nursing homes and antibiotics used to treat them *Describe mechanisms for antibiotic resistance to develop in bacteria including carbapenem-resistance *Discuss ways your laboratory can provide information about antibiotic resistance to your facility Presenter Nimalie Stone, MD, is the Medical Epidemiologist for Long-Term Care in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She is a board-certified infectious disease physician with a research and clinical background in managing infections and antibiotic resistant pathogens in post-acute and long-term care settings. In her role at CDC, Dr. Stone works to address the needs for infection prevention programs in long-term care.
Characterization of bacteria centric host pathogen interactions using DIA MS
This is the webinar "Characterization of bacteria centric host pathogen interactions using DIA MS" that was live on Feb. 13, 2018 The investigation of the molecular adaption of pathogens during disease-causing processes, which is reflected by a changing protein composition, is important for the development of new strategies to combat the pathogen. Therefore, the accurate identification and quantification of proteome changes is required, especially for samples consisting of host and pathogen proteome mixtures. In the webinar, proteomics data from Staphylococcus aureus will be introduced. S. aureus is a major health threat both in the general population and in the hospital environment. Although it is a harmless nasal or skin commensal in the majority of the population (Kluytmans et al., 1997; Wertheim et al., 2005), as an opportunistic pathogen S. aureus causes a variety of infectious diseases (Foster, 2004). It is not only an extracellular pathogen; it can also bypass the host immune system and therapeutic countermeasures by entering human cells via phagocytosis. Intracellular S. aureus can be extremely durable and resistant, making it very difficult to treat and causing relapse of infections (Tuchscherr et al., 2015). We will present i) the ion library construction workflow, ii) benchmarking of the bacterial ion library size, iii) the cross-device (Q Exactive™ and TripleTOF®) usability of assays, iv) the impact on quantification of mixed proteomes in DDA and DIA-MS and v) outcomes of a cell line infection experiment with intracellular S. aureus infecting human lung epithelial cells. Overall, the data presented in the webinar will show that DIA-MS is the method of choice to investigate host-pathogen interaction. About the Speaker: Dr. Stephan Michalik graduated with a PhD in Microbiology from the University of Griefswald in 2012. Currently, Dr. Michalik works as a Scientist/Data Scientist in the Department of Functional Genomics in the Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics at the University Medicine Greifswald.
Views: 54 BiognosysAG
Hal Drakesmith: Iron and Infection
The role of iron in human immunity Iron plays essential biochemical roles in oxygen binding, ATP synthesis and DNA metabolism. The level of iron available in different tissues is controlled by the small peptide hormone hepcidin. Dr Hal Drakesmith studies how hepcidin is modulated during infections, since iron availability plays an important role in the course of major infectious diseases such as HIV, malaria and Hepatitis C. Iron: a new way to control infections? Pathogens can escape recognition by the immune system, but they require iron from their host to grow and spread. If iron availability is high, infection can progress more rapidly. Diverting iron away from invading microbes slows their growth, giving time for our immune mechanisms to clear the infection. Manipulating iron transport might lead to new strategies to combat infections.
Ending the arms race with infectious diseases | Janelle Ayres | TEDxSanDiego
There is a disconnect between our methods for treating infectious diseases and our understanding of the mechanisms that keep us healthy during infection. Infections cause significant damage to our bodies and limiting this damage, together with pathogen eradication, ultimately determines whether or not a patient will survive. In her talk Dr. Janelle Ayres discusses strategies using the human microbiome to develop new therapeutics for promoting survival of infectious disease that will overcome the arms race between us and infections. Dr. Ayres’ research program is focused on developing new strategies for treating both infectious and non-infectious disease. She is especially interested in leveraging our interactions with the microbiome–the trillions of good bacteria living on our bodies–to end the arms race with infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance. Dr. Ayres earned her PhD from Stanford University School of Medicine in Microbiology and Immunology. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 3014 TEDx Talks
QAAFI SCIENCE SEMINAR SERIES 13 June 2017 DESCRIPTION This talk will overview a research program that has looked at developing an effective prevention and control program for a single bacterial pathogen that shows diversity and which occurs in the complex and challenging environment of the modern intensive pig production system. The talk will illustrate the need to have a research program that addresses multiple goals that are relevant and recognise the context of a modern intensive animal production system such as the Australian pig industry. The example being used is the bacterium, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a key respiratory pathogen in the pig industry which is associated with major losses. The talk will explore the disease in a pure form and then the disease observed in a farm environment. The diversity in toxin expression by different forms of A. pleuropneumoniae, and the challenges of apparently new species causing similar symptoms will be covered. Overall, the talk will demonstrate the need for a program that has multiple active avenues that recognise the context of the overall production system. About Dr Conny Turni Since July 2003 Conny has been in charge of the diagnostic services provided by the Microbiology Research Group at the Ecosciences Precinct at Boggo Road. Conny is in charge of the provision of specialized referral services - the identification, serotyping and DNA sequencing of bacteria submitted by laboratories (national and international). Advice is given by Conny on diseases such as Glässer’s disease (Haemophilus parasuis), pleuropneumonia (Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae), pasteurellosis (Pasteurella multocida) and infectious coryza (Avibacterium paragallinarum). In the last 14 years Conny has constantly had projects with the Pork CRC specialising respiratory bacterial diseases. Major advances from her work are a suite of diagnostic and support tools for pig veterinarians dealing with Glässer’s disease and pleuropneumonia, such as real time PCR, serovar profiling service to establish serovar/s on farms, genotyping, antibiotic resistance testing and test development. Conny is also doing research for the poultry industry working on Pasteurella multocida, Riemerella anatipestifer and Avibacterium paragallinarum, exploring genotypic variability, epidemiology, diagnostic test development and antibiotic sensitivity test development. The current international pig work she is involved in is as a collaborator on an ACIAR project to develop diagnostic tools for respiratory pig diseases in Australia and the Philippines, which is also extending to other diseases. SUBSCRIBE: http://www.vision6.com.au/em/forms/subscribe.php?db=398137&s=117697&a=45549&k=387aedc WEB: https://qaafi.uq.edu.au/
💊 Coconut oil fights deadly Candida albicans
Coconut oil may be effective at combating infection with Candida albicans, according to a study published November 18th in the American Society for Microbiology's new open access journal mSphere. The study found that coconut oil consumption reduced gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans in mice. * Manipulation of Host Diet To Reduce Gastrointestinal Colonization by the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida albican
Views: 4515 VHFILM
The host-pathogen struggle for nutrients
Dhara Malavia works in Dr Duncan Wilson's lab at the University of Aberdeen investigating how microbial pathogens adapt to limitations in the essential trace nutrient, zinc. The ultimate aim is to therapeutically manipulate the system and push the balance back in favour of the human host to prevent disease. Find out more about our work to combat the Killer Fungus here: http://www.killerfungus.org/
6th Annual CEND Symposium - Norma Andrews
Dr. Norma Andrews of the University of Maryland presented a talk titled, "New Insights into the Intracellular Life Style of Trypanosomatid Parasites" at the 6th Annual CEND Symposium. January 10, 2014 at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Andrews is interested in strategies used by intracellular pathogens to interact with their host cells and the fundamental cell biological processes subverted by pathogens during infection.
Views: 651 UC Berkeley Events
Harnessing the Immune System to Treat Infection, Autoimmune Disorders and Cancer
Webcast sponsored by the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre and hosted by the Vancouver Public Library and UBC Life Sciences Institute. Our ability to harness the power of the immune system to treat a vast variety of diseases is rapidly advancing. Join the Life Sciences Institute's Infection, Inflammation & Immunity -- I3 -- research group leaders for short talks and discussion about the use of the immune system in treating infection, autoimmune disorders and cancer. This talk is an informal and open forum that aims to bring the latest and greatest ideas in the area of the Life Sciences to the public. Each event is free to attend and will include a talk, networking opportunities and reception. This series focuses on Personalized Medicine and how the Life Sciences Institute faculty, staff and students are working to change clinical practice, improve health outcomes, and reduce health costs. In partnership with the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre's Health Information Series, an ongoing public lecture series that take place in the Lower Mainland community, this talk will also be recorded for webcast viewing at a later date. Panel Topics: Dr. Georgia Perona-Wright -- "Using the immune system to combat infection" Dr. Ken Harder -- "Treating cancer with immunology" Dr. Marc Horwitz -- "Immunotherapies in autoimmunity" Speakers: Dr. Georgia Perona-Wright - Dr Perona Wright's research is on immune responses that can be both protective and pathological. Her aim is to understand how the balance between these two outcomes is achieved, concentrating on the role of cytokines during infection. She is particularly interested in the interaction between coincident, opposing cytokines. Dr. Ken Harder - The long-term goal of the Harder Lab is to identify the key genes and cellular pathways that guide dendritic cell lineage choice and dendritic cell function. We are particularly interested in the role of tyrosine kinase/phosphatase-regulated signalling pathways that control signalling thresholds important for the development and function of DCs. The work utilizes mouse models in which the levels and activities of key signaling molecules have been manipulated allowing the lab to delineate the roles of particular genes or signalling pathways in mammalian dendritic cell biology and in innate/adaptive immunity at the whole animal level. The lab is using these mouse models to explore the relationship between alterations in DC development/function and host responses to tumours and bacterial or viral pathogens. Ultimately, this research program will lead to the identification of critical proteins and pathways that may become targets of future therapeutic strategies to either augment host-pathogen/tumour responses or alleviate pathological immune responses. Dr. Marc Horwitz - Dr. Horwitz's laboratory is interested in identifying, characterizing and determining the mechanisms of viral-induced immune disease in a variety of complex chronic disorders. These include, but are not limited to autoimmune diseases like diabetes, autoimmune myocarditis and multiple sclerosis, immunosuppression induced by viruses such as HIV and Measles, haemorrhagic fevers as observed following Dengue fever virus infection, and meningitis induced by viruses like West Nile Virus. Specifically, Dr. Horwitz's primary goal of the program is to interconnect the changes effecting the ability of the immune system to respond to infection with its ability to develop immune dysfunction leading to disease.
PLoS Pathogens : DNA Is an Antimicrobial Component of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps
DNA Is an Antimicrobial Component of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps. Tyler W.R. Halverson et al. (2015), PLoS Pathogens, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004593 Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) comprise an ejected lattice of chromatin enmeshed with granular and nuclear proteins that are capable of capturing and killing microbial invaders. Although widely employed to combat infection, the antimicrobial mechanism of NETs remains enigmatic. Efforts to elucidate the bactericidal component of NETs have focused on the role of NET-bound proteins including histones, calprotectin and cathepsin G protease; however, exogenous and microbial derived deoxyribonuclease (DNase) remains the most potent inhibitor of NET function. DNA possesses a rapid bactericidal activity due to its ability to sequester surface bound cations, disrupt membrane integrity and lyse bacterial cells. Here we demonstrate that direct contact and the phosphodiester backbone are required for the cation chelating, antimicrobial property of DNA. By treating NETs with excess cations or phosphatase enzyme, the antimicrobial activity of NETs is neutralized, but NET structure, including the localization and function of NET-bound proteins, is maintained. Using intravital microscopy, we visualized NET-like structures in the skin of a mouse during infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Relative to other bacteria, P. aeruginosa is a weak inducer of NETosis and is more resistant to NETs. During NET exposure, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa responds by inducing the expression of surface modifications to defend against DNA-induced membrane destabilization and NET-mediated killing. Further, we show induction of this bacterial response to NETs is largely due to the bacterial detection of DNA. Therefore, we conclude that the DNA backbone contributes both to the antibacterial nature of NETs and as a signal perceived by microbes to elicit host-resistance strategies.
Views: 943 ScienceVio
National Action Plan on Microbial Resistance Launched
The departments of health, agriculture, and environment, have collectively launched a National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. The aim of the plan is to learn and understand the use and management of antibiotics, in the areas of agriculture, livestock and human consumption of medication.
Views: 53 EMTV Online
Pathogenesis by WIBAI Games
Pathogenesis by WIBAI Games launches on Kickstarter 9/28/2016. Designed by Jamie & Loren Cunningham (Transylvania: Curses & Traitors) in partnership with scientific illustrator somersault:1824, Pathogenesis is a deck building game in which players take on the role of bacterial pathogens attacking a human host. The pathogens must survive the body's powerful immune response, adapt in an ever changing environment, and evolve to take on virulence factors to increase their attack, defense, and other abilities so that they may do enough damage to defeat the body before the human host becomes immune and all the players lose the game. Video by David Lowry - The Lowry Agency/Club Fantasci Kickstarter: www.wibaigames.com www.facebook.com/wibaigames/ www.twitter.com/wibaigames https://www.instagram.com/wibai/ Club Fantasci Around the Web: Club Fantasci on Facebook: www.facebook.com/clubfantasci Club Fantasci on Twitter:  www.twitter.com/clubfantasci Club Fantasci on Google+: https://plus.google.com/+Clubfantasciboardgames/ Club Fantasci on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lowryagency_clubfantasci/ Club Fantasci on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/ClubFantasci
Views: 784 David Lowry
Defeating antimicrobial resistance: the future of hygiene in the healthcare sector
The European Commission adopted in June 2017 a new Action Plan to tackle Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), responsible for 25,000 deaths and a loss of €1.5 billion in the EU every year. The action plan also focuses on hygiene conditions in healthcare settings. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) affect up to 15% of hospitalised patients. Persistent microbial contamination of hospital surfaces and growing drug resistance of pathogens are among the main causes. Traditionally used cleaning methods show limitations in controlling pathogen contamination. To bring healthcare into the future, there is an urgent need for effective, alternative and sustainable ways to reduce the pathogens. The Italian services company COPMA has developed, together with the University of Ferrara, the innovative sanitation system PCHS®, exploiting biological competition on the basis of specific application techniques and capable of ensuring stable low pathogenic microbial load, breaking the resistances reducing the risk of HAIs. EURACTIV organised a workshop to discuss the way forward for healthcare in Europe and how hygiene can be improved in hospitals. Questions included: - What are the priorities for the future of hygiene practices in European healthcare? - How can research and innovative practice better inform policy-making? - How can the EU and Member States foster research and uptake of new solutions for safer healthcare?
Views: 200 EURACTIV
Enterome: therapeutic solutions for IBD
The gut microbiome is a key element in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In IBD, the immune system drives a dysregulated response against the microbiome and induces chronic inflammation. To fix IBD, we must look at the microbiome. Enterome has developed tools: 1) to monitor disease activity in IBD 2) to develop new drug targets 3) to diagnose presence of specific bacteria and eradicate them with contrabiotics In the case of Crohn’s disease, quality of life is altered and chronic inflammation puts patients at risk of developing colorectal cancer. In healthy subjects, the gut microbiome protects efficiently the mucosa from aggressive agent. In Crohn’s disease, dysbiosis induced by auto-immunity gives place to the accumulation of pathogens. Actually, Adherent Invasive Escherichia Coli (AIEC) are bacteria found in the Ileum of Crohn’s Disease patients. They take advantage of the altered microbiome to form a biofilm and invade the intestinal mucosa. AIEC cannot adhere to the protected mucosa in healthy patients, unlike in Crohn’s Disease where the level of AIEC infection is associated with the severity of the disease. Let’s discover why… AIEC binds the CEACAM6 glycoprotein anchored to the intestinal cells through its FimH protein located at the end of pili 1. This induces secretions of inflammatory cytokines which enhance CEACAM6 expression and consequently novel AIEC adhesion. AIEC escape from degradation in CD patients that have a genetic predisposition that disables autophagy. After binding to the intestinal cells, AIEC translocate to the Lamina Propria, enter the macrophages, and overcolonize. At this point, TNF alpha is secreted and the disease becomes more severe and chronic. How can we combat pathogenic AIEC? 1- Enterome is developing a contrabiotic with its FimH antagonists: which work by impairing the interaction between FimH and the CEACAM 6 receptor, specifically preventing the adhesion of AIECs and causing them to be removed from the mucosa 2- This treatment is much more specific than antibiotherapy (ATB), which can lead to the destruction of beneficial microbes and induce dysbiosis raising the risk of an outgrowth of opportunistic bacteria such as nosocomial. In order to combat AIECs, we also need an effective way to measure the level of AIEC outgrowth in CD patient. Until now, an intestinal biopsy performed by colonoscopy was followed by an AIEC culture for the characterization of phenotype. However, this procedure cannot be routinely performed because it’s invasive, hard to repeat, and prone to sampling error. To overcome this, Enterome, thanks to its specific microbiome expertise, is developing a non-invasive biomarker for AIECs in stool samples which serves as a companion diagnostic to: a. detect AIEC in Crohn’s disease patients b. define Disease Activity c. identify patients who are candidates for FimH antagonist therapy d. monitor the response to FimH antagonist therapy Enterome is providing an integrated solution for Crohn’s disease patients with a targeted treatment and a companion diagnostic for AIEC burden.
Views: 2000 Enterome Bioscience
Microbiology Journal Club -bacteriophage search dynamics
“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a nascent bacteriophage in possession of a good genome, must be in want of a cell to infect.”* This parody line nicely summarizes the premise our November journal club. A group at San Diego State University recently shared their findings on the “hunting strategies” of bacteriophages. By observing and modelling bacteriophage movement, the researchers found phage can display unique ways of moving through mucus. The study raises fascinating questions like, can we use the predatory nature of microbes to combat infection? Or (as the authors propose) alter the microbiome on mucosal surfaces? Moreover, should search strategies serve as a trait for selecting phage used in therapies? *The quote is parodied from the first line of Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice”. Well, there are remarkable similarities between viruses hunting for a host and humans hunting for a mate, wouldn’t you say?
Modified polio virus used to treat brain cancer
For story suggestions or custom animation requests, contact [email protected] Visit http://archive.nextanimationstudio.com to view News Direct's complete archive of 3D news animations. RESTRICTIONS: Broadcast: NO USE JAPAN, NO USE TAIWAN Digital: NO USE JAPAN, NO USE TAIWAN A new experimental treatment is using a modified version of a once-dreaded virus to fight against a deadly form of brain cancer. Glioblastoma is a type of cancer that occurs in the brain or spinal cord that is typically treated using surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. It is an aggressive disease, with only a 12 to 18 month prognosis for those with grade 4 tumors. According to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Duke University researchers removed genetic code from the polio virus and replaced it with DNA from the rhinovirus, which causes the common cold. The modified virus is then injected directly into the tumors of glioblastoma patients through a catheter. Instead of replicating itself, it attaches to receptors on the surface of the cancer cells, infecting them and prompting the body's immune system to attack. Of the 61 glioblastoma patients treated using the re-engineered virus, 21% are still alive three years later, compared to only 4% for those who underwent conventional treatment. The experimental treatment, like many immunotherapies, had varied, sometimes dramatic effects on the subjects. Scientists are still figuring out how to get the virus to produce the exact same results in different people, but are confident that it can be done. ----------------------------------------­­---------------------------------------­-­---------------- Next Animation Studio’s News Direct service provides daily, high-quality, informative 3D news animations that fill in for missing footage and help viewers understand breaking news stories or in-depth features on science, technology, and health. Sign up for a free trial of News Direct's news animations at http://newsdirect.nextanimationstudio.com/trial/ To subscribe to News Direct or for more info, please visit: http://newsdirect.nextanimationstudio.com
Views: 1045 News Direct
NDM-1 Superbug
Check out Bas Rutten's Liver Shot on MMA Surge: http://bit.ly/MMASurgeEp1 http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-superbug British researchers face recently stated that a newly-identified gene mutation may be responsible for a new class of drug-resistant superbugs. According to ABC News, researchers say a group of plastic surgery patients who traveled from India or Pakistan back to Great Britain returned carrying bacteria which has an antibiotic-resistant "superbug gene" known as NDM-1. NDM-1 stands for New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase. AFP quotes researchers as saying that a "new class of superbugs...could spread worldwide." ''The New York Times'' quotes experts calling the gene mutation "worrying" and "ominous." According to AFP, researchers first discovered the NDM-1 gene in 2009 in a Swedish patient who was hospitalized in India. Scientists are said to be especially concerned because NDM-1 bacteria are resistant to even the strongest, broad-spectrum antibiotics reserved to treat "multi-drug resistant bugs." In a article from the journal The Lancet, researchers in Britain noted that NDM-1 "can easily be transferred into common bacteria such as E. Coli." Once the NDM-1 transfer onto the bacteria, they can "easily spread and diversify." The Lancet piece notes that researchers have found patients in several countries, including the U.S., Netherlands, Australia and Canada, who were found to have "bacteria susceptible to the NDM-1 superbug gene." Scientists have said that NDM-1 "was impervious to all antibiotics except two." In The Lancet, scientists conclude that "The potential of NDM-1 to be a worldwide public health problem is great, and co-ordinated international surveillance is needed." However, regarding the severity of the bug, as Dr. Martin J. Blaser of New York University says in his interview with the New York Times, "it's too early to judge." For more info about the NDM-1 Superbug, check out these related Mahalo pages: NDM-1: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1 NDM-1 Symptoms: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-symptoms NDM-1 Transmission: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-transmission NDM-1 Testing: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-testing NDM-1 Prevention: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-prevention NDM-1 Treatments: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-treatments NDM-1 Health Insurance: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-health-insurance NDM-1 India: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-india NDM-1 Travel Advisory: http://www.mahalo.com/ndm-1-travel-advisory Free NDM-1 Testing: http://www.mahalo.com/free-ndm-1-testing Superbug: http://www.mahalo.com/superbug E Coli: http://www.mahalo.com/e-coli Escherichia Coli: http://www.mahalo.com/escherichia-coli Gram-negative: http://www.mahalo.com/gram-negative Klebsiella Pneumoniae: http://www.mahalo.com/klebsiella-pneumoniae Timothy Walsh: http://www.mahalo.com/timothy-walsh Check out these other great Mahalo playlists: How To Pair Wine: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=64F4800FBC174634 How To Get a Job: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=0717724A987EF8BF How To Become a Pharmacist: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=E42E43E1775B1AE8 How To Become a Photographer: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=2C523C705B5D715D How To Sell on eBay for Beginners: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=E61486D225C8A4A5 How To Start a Blog: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=BC82FA57A6AC6EDD How To Use Facebook: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=5F11AB569088B2F9 How To Play FarmVille: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=783B260723506DEA How To Get 3 Stars on Angry Birds 1st World: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=E32581F286AB34C4 How To Speak Japanese: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=7B20082F3A7DA3E6 Photo by Roger Schultz: http://www.flickr.com/photos/elaws/ Photo by MJhoy: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mjhoy/ Photo by Unlisted Sightings: http://www.flickr.com/people/unlistedsightings/ Photo by USACE: http://www.flickr.com/photos/europedistrict/ Photo by Kyle Simourd: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/ Photo by Esparta: http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/
Views: 23024 mahalodotcom
Dissecting the ecological and molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between plant...
Presented at Microbiology & Immunology 2017 https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-2017 Punya Nachappa, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Purdue University Dr. Punya Nachappa Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at Purdue University, Fort Wayne. With a background in agriculture, specializing in entomology, Dr. Nachappa studies insects that transmit microbes or pathogens that causes diseases in plants such as soybeans. During her first year at Purdue, a new soybean virus was discovered which has become a big focus of her research. When trying to study the interaction between the virus, its insect vector and the host plant Dr. Nachappa and her students found that insects carrying the virus have better reproduction rates than insects who do not. Understanding the interaction between the insect and virus, and what it means to growers, is the focus for the future. Dr. Nachappa has more than 15 peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals and over a million dollar in funding from federal and regional agencies such as USDA and Indiana Soybean Alliance, respectively. She has presented her research at several top-tier universities, regional and national conferences. She has served as peer-reviewer for 20 international journals and ad-hoc reviewer for 4 national and international funding organizations including panel member for USDA. Dissecting the ecological and molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between plant viruses and their insect vectors Plant viruses cause significant damage in terms of reduction in quality and quantity of yield in a wide range of crop plants worldwide. The majority of plant viruses are transmitted from one host plant to another by insect vectors. Although viruses are obligate, intracellular parasites their relationship with the insect vector varies from parasitism to mutualism. The central question of my research program is to understand ‘how plant viruses affect biology and ecology of their insect vectors? and (2) what plant and/or insect responses mediate plant-virus -vector interactions?’ To identify molecular and ecological parameters that mediate plant-vector-virus interactions, I am investigating two virus-vector systems. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), one of the ten most devastating plant viruses worldwide is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips), the primary insect vector of TSWV, and Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), a new emerging soybean virus transmitted by Neohydatothrips variabilis (soybean thrips). Earn PACE/CME Credits: 1. Make sure you’re a registered member of LabRoots https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-2017 2. Watch the webinar on YouTube or on the LabRoots Website https://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/microbiology-2017 3. Click Here to get your PACE (expired 9/14/2019) –http://www.labroots.com/credit/pace-credits/2444/third-party LabRoots on Social: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LabRootsInc Twitter: https://twitter.com/LabRoots LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/labroots Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/labrootsinc Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/labroots/ SnapChat: labroots_inc
Views: 89 LabRoots
The Cutting-Edge Coconut Oil & Cannabis Cancer Miracle
The Coconut Oil Secret: http://yoube.link/coconutoilsecret The Cutting-Edge Coconut Oil & Cannabis Cancer Miracle It beautifies and protects the skin even against skin cancer! It contains a unique combination of fatty-acids with powerful medicinal properties—plus a specific healing compound that fights bacterial and viral infections! The next time you're getting ready to cook dinner, would you rather reach for any old oil… or would you rather serve your family an oil that is not only heart-friendly, but is on the cutting-edge of current medical research because its healing potential is just that amazing? coconut oil and another all natural botanical that has been even more vilified and misunderstood for years - cannabis - are both at the forefront of research into the cure for one of Western civilization's health nightmares … cancer. Coconut oil a saturated fat—is chock-full of health promoting properties and is in no way responsible for high cholesterol, obesity, heart disease and the bad effects generations of Americans have been falsely led to believe these health benefits are evidence-based there is research to support that coconut makes you less hungry… contains ketones that reduce seizures… improves blood cholesterol… burns fat… and boosts brain function in Alzheimer's patients. But these aren't the only reasons that coconut oil is on the forefront of cutting-edge research once again. Scientists have uncovered the potential for coconut oil to aid cannabis in the fight against cancer! You can't help but wonder if the vilification of marijuana is another plot to deceive the American public, just as generations of Americans were deceived about the oil we should have been consuming—and the oils we were consuming that were killing us! And now researchers are looking at amplifying the healing potential of marijuana by pairing it with coconut oil! Medical marijuana capsules infused in coconut oil are an alternative way to therapeutically use cannabis without having to inhale it through smoking. Infusing cannabis into coconut oil also allows for easy entry into the liver where it can be rapidly processed. Coconut oil is used because of its high amount of essential fatty acids which makes it a good binding agent for the cannabinoids. Couple this with its amazing health properties and you superpower the combination. Half of the fat in coconut oil is comprised of a fat that is not frequently found in nature, lauric acid. Lauric acid has been called a “miracle” ingredient due to its health promoting capabilities, which is evidenced by its presence in a mother's milk. In fact, it can be found in only three dietary sources—small amounts in butterfat and larger amounts in palm kernel and coconut oil. In the body, lauric acid is converted to monolaurin, which is a potent antiviral, antibacterial and antiprotozoal substance. Because monolaurin is a monoglyceride, it can destroy lipid-coated viruses including measles, influenza, HIV, herpes and a number of pathogenic bacteria.
Views: 45727 LUKE LEE
Bonnie Bassler (Princeton) Part 1: Bacterial Communication via Quorum Sensing
https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/quorum-sensing/ Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate with chemical languages that allow them to synchronize their behavior and thereby act as enormous multi-cellular organisms. This process is called quorum sensing and it enables bacteria to successfully infect and cause disease in plants, animals, and humans. Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying quorum sensing are leading to the development of novel strategies to interfere with quorum sensing. These strategies form the basis of new therapies to be used as antibiotics. See more at http://www.ibioseminars.org
Views: 68829 iBiology
Charles Chiu, MD PhD | Nanopore Sequencing for Metagenomic Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
Unbiased diagnosis of all pathogens in a single test by metagenomic next-generation sequencing is now feasible, but has been limited to date by concerns regarding sensitivity and sample-to-answer turnaround times. Here we will describe the development, validation, and implementation of a rapid, field-ready assay for differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness on an Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencer that can be performed in under 6 hours. Nanopore sequencing data will be analyzed in real-time on a laptop computer using SURPIrt, a portable version of the SURPI computational pipeline that is currently being implemented for precision medicine diagnosis in hospitals. The eventual goal of these studies is clinical performance validation and deployment at field sites for use in clinical diagnosis and public health surveillance in patients with any unknown febrile illness — including but not limited to infections by Zika virus, Ebola virus, Lassa virus, chikungunya virus, dengue virus, and the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The MinION is for research use only.
Soilborne Disease Master Class for the Vegetable Industry
Vegetable growers and advisors discuss how attending a master class has changed the way they manage soilborne diseases and influenced their business. 'Experiences from leading growers' is a series of videos produced by the Soil Wealth and Integrated Crop Protection extension teams.
Views: 1006 RM Consulting Group
Tackling Water Quality Issues in Bolivia and Guatemala
This presentation focuses on water quality-related issues in developing countries, in particular Bolivia and Guatemala. The most alarming water quality issues in developing countries are related to acute contaminants, more specifically microbial contamination of their source waters. The irony is that these hazardous microbial contaminants, also called as pathogens, are induced by humans and animals, primarily due to the lack of proper sanitation facilities and practices. Biological pathogens that were analyzed consisted of bacteria, viruses, and multiple types of protozoa. The goal of this project is to determine control measures and develop low-cost detection methodology for these pathogens. Through various pictures and stories, Mark Taylor presents his experiences on the water quality-related issues in these two developing countries.

Cover letter references ppt
Chilis employment application form
Civil service essay writing
Writing community service
The best paper writing service