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What is INTERNALIZATION THEORY? What does INTERNALIZATION THEORY mean?
 
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What is INTERNALIZATION THEORY? What does INTERNALIZATION THEORY mean? INTERNALIZATION THEORY meaning - INTERNALIZATION THEORY definition - INTERNALIZATION THEORY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Internalization theory is a branch of economics that is used to analyse international business behaviour. Internalization theory focuses on imperfections in intermediate product markets. Two main kinds of intermediate product are distinguished: knowledge flows linking research and development (R&D) to production, and flows of components and raw materials from an upstream production facility to a downstream one. Most applications of the theory focus on knowledge flow. Proprietary knowledge is easier to appropriate when intellectual property rights such as patents and trademarks are weak. Even with strong protections firms protect their knowledge through secrecy. Instead of licensing their knowledge to independent local producers, firms exploit it themselves in their own production facilities. In effect, they internalise the market in knowledge within the firm. The theory claims the internalization leads to larger, more multinational enterprises, because knowledge is a public good. Development of a new technology is concentrated within the firm and the knowledge then transferred to other facilities.ž Internalization occurs only when firms perceive the benefits to exceed the costs. When internalization leads to foreign investment the firm may incur political and commercial risks due to unfamiliarity with the foreign environment. These are known as ‘costs of doing business abroad’, arising from the ‘liability of foreignness’. When such costs are high a firm may license or outsource production to an independent firm; or it may produce at home and export to the country instead. Firms without special knowledge may become multinational to internalise supplies of components or raw materials in order to guarantee quality or continuity of supply, or for tax advantages from transfer pricing. Buckley and Casson (1976) was a seminal work. Two Canadian economists, Stephen Hymer and John McManus, independently noted the relevance of internalization, and their contribution is the subject of debate. Alan M. Rugman linked internalization theory to his earlier work on market imperfections, applying it empirically in a North American context. Jean-Francois Hennart subsequently developed a variant of the theory that emphasised the interplay of headquarters authority and local autonomy within the firm. Internalization theory is also closely related to Stephen Magee’s appropriability theory. Internalization theory was used by John Harry Dunning as one of the components of his eclectic paradigm or OLI model. Dunning referred to knowledge as an ‘ownership advantage’ and claimed that ownership advantage was necessary for a firm to become a multinational. This was disputed by internalization theorists on the grounds that if quality control and transfer pricing are sufficient, then ownership advantage cannot be necessary. Dunning argued that the firm’s ability to internalise could also be described as an ownership advantage, which led internalization theorists to suggest that his concept of ownership advantage had become tautological. Internalization theory is related to transaction cost theory through common dependence on the seminal work of Ronald Coase. They are not the same however. Internalization theory focuses on links between R&D and production whereas transaction cost theory focuses on links between one production facility and another. Transaction cost theory typically attributes market imperfections to bounded rationality and ‘lock in’, whilst internalization theory emphasises asymmetric information and weaknesses in property rights. Transaction cost theory is typically applied in a domestic context, whereas internalization theory was developed specifically for an international context.....
Views: 6678 The Audiopedia
A Look into Foreign Direct Investments
 
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In this video, Jennifer Nguyen gives a brief discussion about Foreign Direct Investments and goes over various concepts and definitions that would allow the viewers to get a better understanding of the topic.
Views: 9085 bestfriend210
Foreign Direct Investment (Introduction)
 
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Basics of FDI, including basic motivations. Discussion includes the extra risks associated with FDI for multinational corporations.
Views: 51443 Mike Moore
International Business Theories - Session 2
 
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This part of the series covers some important trade and FDI theories.
Views: 12902 xogen chan
Foreign Direct Investment Unit:  Introduction and Overview
 
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Your IB Economics Course Companion! This is video 1 of 3 videos in “The Foreign Direct Investment Series”. Watch the entire series right here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLNI2Up0JUWkFQEU8Vtq5gijMaI3GSazVI The List! Here is the “The List” for “The Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Development Series” For an explanation of the logic of “The Lists” click here: https://youtu.be/dE0fbsgXlFE Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Reasons why MNCs are attracted to developing nations 1. Natural resources 2. Huge markets 3. Low cost of labor 4. Fewer regulations Possible advantages of FDI 1. Increased savings 2. Increased employment 3. Increased education and training 4. Increased research, development, technology and marketing strategies 5. Multiplier effect of increased incomes 6. Increased tax revenue 7. Increased foreign capital 8. Improved infrastructure 9. Increased choice in market place 10. Lower prices in market place 11. Increased free trade Possible disadvantages of FDI 1. MNCs Bring own management teams 2. Too much power to MNCs 3. Practice of transfer pricing 4. Increased pollution due to low regulations 5. MNCs Extract natural resources from host country 6. MNCs use capital intensive production methods 7. MNCs purchase domestic firms 8. MNCs often repatriate profits I hope you find these videos helpful to your study of Economics. Enjoy! Brad Cartwright . Follow on Twitter: IB Specific News and Analysis Daily! https://twitter.com/econ_ib . Follow on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/econcoursecompanion/ Support Econ Course Companion: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=CQS377QG4VM4G&source=url
Views: 30467 Econ Course Companion
Discuss the Internationalization theory of FDI
 
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Assignment Solutions, Case study Answer sheets Project Report and Thesis contact [email protected] www.mbacasestudyanswers.com ARAVIND – 09901366442 – 09902787224
What is FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT? What does FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT mean?
 
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✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT? What does FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT mean? FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT meaning - FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT definition - FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A foreign direct investment is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country. It is thus distinguished from foreign portfolio investment by a notion of direct control. The origin of the investment does not impact the definition as an FDI: the investment may be made either "inorganically" by buying a company in the target country or "organically" by expanding operations of an existing business in that country. Broadly, foreign direct investment includes "mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from overseas operations and intra company loans". In a narrow sense, foreign direct investment refers just to building new facility, a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. FDI is the sum of equity capital, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown the balance of payments. FDI usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise. Stock of FDI is the net (i.e., outward FDI minus inward FDI) cumulative FDI for any given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. FDI is one example of international factor movements. A foreign direct investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country. Foreign direct investment is distinguished from foreign portfolio investment, a passive investment in the securities of another country such as public stocks and bonds, by the element of "control". According to the Financial Times, "Standard definitions of control use the internationally agreed 10 percent threshold of voting shares, but this is a grey area as often a smaller block of shares will give control in widely held companies. Moreover, control of technology, management, even crucial inputs can confer de facto control." According to Grazia Ietto-Gillies (2012), prior to Stephen Hymer’s theory regarding direct investment in the 1960s, the reasons behind Foreign Direct Investment and Multinational Corporations were explained by neoclassical economics based on macro economic principles. These theories were based on the classical theory of trade in which the motive behind trade was a result of the difference in the costs of production of goods between two countries, focusing on the low cost of production as a motive for a firm’s foreign activity. For example, Joe S. Bain only explained the internationalization challenge through three main principles: absolute cost advantages, product differentiation advantages and economies of scale. Furthermore, the neoclassical theories were created under the assumption of the existence of perfect competition. Intrigued by the motivations behind large foreign investments made by corporations from the United States of America, Hymer developed a framework that went beyond the existing theories, explaining why this phenomenon occurred, since he considered that the previously mentioned theories could not explain foreign investment and its motivations. Facing the challenges of his predecessors, Hymer focused his theory on filling the gaps regarding international investment. The theory proposed by the author approaches international investment from a different and more firm-specific point of view. As opposed to traditional macroeconomics-based theories of investment, Hymer states that there is a difference between mere capital investment, otherwise known as portfolio investment, and direct investment. The difference between the two, which will become the cornerstone of his whole theoretical framework, is the issue of control, meaning that with direct investment firms are able to obtain a greater level of control than with portfolio investment. Furthermore, Hymer proceeds to criticize the neoclassical theories, stating that the theory of capital movements cannot explain international production. Moreover, he clarifies that FDI is not necessarily a movement of funds from a home country to a host country, and that it is concentrated on particular industries within many countries.
Views: 13115 The Audiopedia
Internalization Theory
 
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An Easy Overview Of Internalization
Views: 6587 Christopher Hunt
Theory Dunning's eclectic paradigm- OLI model
 
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Views: 1748 Nur Fatin Syakirah
Entering Foreign Markets
 
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Chapter 13
Views: 20149 Michael Nugent
Dunning's Eclectic Paradigm Theory
 
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Views: 493 Syaifuddin
The OLI Paradigm Case Solution & Analysis- Caseism.com
 
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https://caseism.com Get Your The OLI Paradigm Case Solution at Caseism.com Caseism.com is the number 1 destination for getting the case studies analyzed. https://caseism.com/the-oli-paradigm-55460
Views: 2800 Caseism.com
The Determinants of FDI in Tunisia An Empirical Study Through A Gravity Model  AEFR 512 1306 1314
 
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The Determinants of FDI in Tunisia An Empirical Study Through A Gravity Model
Views: 75 Research Media
Lecture on What is FDI?
 
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In this lecture we will be discussing what is Foreign Direct Investment and the advantages of Foreign Direct Investment. We will also have a look at the disadvantages of FDI and the reasons why anybody needs to know the laws governing FDI. This lecture will be delivered to you by Mr. Avinash Tripathi. Website: http://www.fusionlawschool.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/fusionlawschool/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/FusionLawSchool Google+ : https://plus.google.com/+FusionLawSchool/
Views: 45621 Fusion Law School
Uppsala model Top # 6 Facts
 
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Uppsala model Top # 6 Facts
Views: 2919 Maulik Kinjal
Trade and FDI
 
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ECON 136 SJSU Fall 2013 Haight TRADE AND FDI
Views: 1102 Kevin Au
FDI and its relation with export
 
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FDI - Two Main Forms
 
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Bus 187
Views: 3249 Dylan Ramseck
What Is Foreign Investment
 
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What Is Foreign Investment,https://goo.gl/r1938O foreign direct investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country Foreign direct investment is distinguished from portfolio foreign investment, a passive investment in the securities of another country such as public stocks and bonds, by the element of "control".[1] According to the Financial Times, "Standard definitions of control use the internationally agreed 10 percent threshold of voting shares, but this is a grey area as often a smaller block of shares will give control in widely held companies. Moreover, control of technology, management, even crucial inputs can confer de facto control. Definitions Broadly, foreign direct investment includes "mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from overseas operations and intra company loans". In a narrow sense, foreign direct investment refers just to building new facilities. The numerical FDI figures based on varied definitions are not easily comparable. As a part of the national accounts of a country, and in regard to the GDP equation Y=C+I+G+(X-M)[Consumption + gross Investment + Government spending +(exports - imports)], where I is domestic investment plus foreign investment, FDI is defined as the net inflows of investment (inflow minus outflow) to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor.[2] FDI is the sum of equity capital, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown the balance of payments. FDI usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise. Stock of FDI is the net (i.e., inward FDI minus outward FDI) cumulative FDI for any given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.[3] FDI is one example of international factor movements A foreign direct investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country. Foreign direct investment is distinguished from portfolio foreign investment, a passive investment in the securities of another country such as public stocks and bonds, by the element of "control".[1] According to the Financial Times, "Standard definitions of control use the internationally agreed 10 percent threshold of voting shares, but this is a grey area as often a smaller block of shares will give control in widely held companies. Moreover, control of technology, management, even crucial inputs can confer de facto control." Theoretical background According to Grazia Ietto-Gillies (2012),prior to Stephen Hymer’s theory regarding direct investment in the 1960s, the reasons behind Foreign Direct Investment and Multinational Corporations were explained by neoclassical economics based on macro economic principles. These theories were based on the classical theory of trade in which the motive behind trade was a result of the difference in the costs of production of goods between two countries, focusing on the low cost of production as a motive for a firm’s foreign activity. For example, Joe S. Bain only explained the internationalization challenge through three main principles: absolute cost advantages, product differentiation advantages and economies of scale. Furthermore, the neoclassical theories were created under the assumption of the existence of perfect competition. Intrigued by the motivations behind large foreign investments made by corporations from the United States of America, Hymer developed a framework that went beyond the existing theories, explaining why this phenomenon occurred, since he considered that the previously mentioned theories could not explain foreign investment and its motivations. Facing the challenges of his predecessors, Hymer focused his theory on filling the gaps regarding international investment. The theory proposed by the author approaches international investment from a different and more firm-specific point of view. As opposed to traditional macroeconomics-based theories of investment, Hymer states that there is a difference between mere capital investment, otherwise known as portfolio investment, and direct investment. The difference between the two, which will become the cornerstone of his whole theoretical framework, is the issue of control, meaning that with direct investment firms are able to obtain a greater level of control than with portfolio investment. Furthermore, Hymer proceeds to criticize the neoclassical theories, stating that the theory of capital movements cannot explain international production. Moreover, he clarifies that FDI is not necessarily a movement of funds from a home country to a host country, and that it is concentrated on particular industries within many countries. In https://goo.gl/r1938O
Views: 364 Tips digital1
International Investment
 
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Discussion about International Equity Issue and International Debt Issue
Views: 1115 Amit Kumar
Internationalisation
 
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Professor Mario Kafouros, Director of Research for International Business, Professor Peter Buckley, Professor of International Business, and Professor Jeremy Clegg, Jean Monnet Professor discuss internationalisation and how it has direct implications for how firms operate and how firms develop their strategic planning. "Our research has resulted in a framework that enables individuals and firms to evaluate the social, economic, and innovation impacts. "Nestle commissioned us to implement this framework and the framework assisted Nestle to evaluate their impact on societies and emerging economies." For more information: http://business.leeds.ac.uk/research/
What incentives for foreign investors in Uganda?
 
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Discover the incentives proposed by the Uganda Investment Authority to attract foreign companies in this episode of Africa Business case
What Is Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment?
 
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In countries with tariffs or other barriers to imports, definition of horizontal foreign direct investment by a firm establish manufacturing facilities in multiple producing dec 4, 2010 fdi is the same industry abroad as that which operates at home, but why should choose rather than multinational and kieran macinerney may term paper (advanced seminar) economics international economic alexander protsenko; Vertical investments transition jan 26, 2004 downloadable! no abstract available for this item acronym. Hfdi, horizontal foreign direct investment. Hfdi, hands four dancers of ithaca (estithaca, ny) abstract. This paper explores the horizontal and vertical technology spillover effect of foreign direct investment (fdi) across indian manufacturing industries. Horizontal foreign direct investments and their investment wikipedia. Foreign direct investments in transition countries. A horizontal direct investment refers to the investor by a firm in foreign interest that equals amount company invests domestically same fdi is distinguished from portfolio (the purchase of one country's where carries out activities abroad as at vertical versus. Platform this paper examines the impact of uncertainty on profitability vertical and horizontal foreign direct investment (fdi). Investopedia investopedia video play foreign direct investment ''jul 24, 2014 fdis can also be classified into horizontal and vertical forms. Doctor oeconomiae publicae (dr abstract. A company investing in the same foreign direct investment (fdi) investopedia terms f fdi. The basic goal of this paper is to indicate the importance and influence horizontal foreign direct investments on countries that receive a investment (fdi) an in form controlling ownership fdi arises when firm duplicates its home country based activities at same value chain stage host through. Vertical and horizontal foreign direct investments in citeseerx. Publish econpapers vertical and horizontal foreign direct investments in transition investment how is technology spillover of. Vertical versus horizontal fdi tamu. Googleusercontent searchforeign direct investments are commonly categorized as being horizontal, vertical or conglomerate in nature. Vertical fdi takes place when the answer horizontal refers to type of direct investment between vertical fdi, by contrast, occurs a firm in an industrialized country lowers cost case company does all same activities abroad as at home. For example, toyota assembles motor cars in japan and the this may be done to supply goods or services a foreign market. Inaugural dissertation zur erlangung des grades. What is horizontal foreign direct investment international business fdi. Horizontal fdi, where multi plant firms duplicate roughly the same activities in multiple countries, has been distinguished from vertical and horizontal. Foreign direct investment video foreign. Asp url? Q webcache. What is horizontal foreign direct investment? Definition and meaning investment definition f
Views: 1541 Sityui Spun
MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS / FOREIGN MARKETS IN HINDI | BBA/MBA/Bcom | ppt
 
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#YouTubeTaughtMe International Business Management (IBM) This video consists of the following: 1. Meaning and Concept of International business in hindi 2. Different modes of entry into international business : i. Exporting ii. Joint Venture iii. Outsourcing iv. Franchising v. Turn Key Projects vi. Foreign Direct Investments vii. Mergers and Acquisitions (Cross Border) viii. Licensing ix. Contract Manufacturing x. Strategic Alliance Check out my BLOG : http://www.pptwalablog.blogspot.com TAGS: foreign market entry modes pdf, foreign markets modes of entry, 5 foreign market entry modes, Direct Exports , Indirect Exports, Business process outsourcing, Franchisees , Franchiser ,
Views: 8992 Sonu Singh - PPT wale
Types of FDI
 
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Views: 4041 Corey Dodgson
US FDI Declines
 
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US foreign direct investment has dwindled over the last few years. Barack Obama and senior cabinet officials are stepping in to boost FDI. Louise Mc Cauley presents today's press review.
Views: 63 Dukascopy TV (EN)
How to Win in the World Markets: Investment, Futures, Trade, Finance (1987)
 
01:11:59
According to Grazia Ietto-Gillies (2012),[4] prior to Stephen Hymer’s theory regarding direct investment in the 1960s, the reasons behind Foreign Direct Investment and Multinational Corporations were explained by neoclassical economics based on macro economic principles. These theories were based on the classical theory of trade in which the motive behind trade was a result of the difference in the costs of production of goods between two countries, focusing on the low cost of production as a motive for a firm’s foreign activity. For example, Joe S. Bain only explained the internationalization challenge through three main principles, which are: Absolute cost advantages, product differentiation advantages and economies on scale. Further more, the neo classical theories where created under the assumption of the existence of a perfect competition. Intrigued by the motivations behind large foreign investments made by corporation from the United States of America, Hymer developed a framework that explained beyond the existing theories, why this phenomenon occurred, since he considered that the previously mentioned theories could not explain foreign investment and it motivations. Facing the challenges of his predecessors, Hymer focused his theory on filling the gaps regarding international investment. The theory proposed by the author approaches international investment from a different and more firm specific point of view. As opposed to traditional macroeconomic-based theories of investment, Hymer states that there is a difference between mere capital investment, else known as portfolio investment, and direct investment. The difference between these two, which will become the corner stone of his whole theoretical framework, is the issue of control, meaning that with direct investment firms are able to obtain a greater level of control than with portfolio investment. Further more, Hymer proceeds to criticize the neoclassical theories, stating that the theory of capital movements cannot explain international production. yes that is fact Moreover, he clarifies that FDI is not necessarily a movement of funds from a home country to a host country, nor and that it is concentrated on particular industries within many countries and not vice versa (as would be the case if interest rates were the main motive for international investment). Another interesting observation made by Hymer in his theory, was that opposite of what was sustained by the neoclassical theories, foreign direct investment is not limited to investment of excess profits abroad. In fact, foreign direct investment can be financed through loans obtained in the host country, payments in exchange for equity (patents, technology, machinery etc.), among others. The previous criticisms lead Hymer to propose the three main determinants of foreign direct investment, taking into account imperfections in the market as a key assumption: Existence of firm specific advantages, their link to market imperfections, Removal of conflicts with rivals in foreign markets and propensity to formulate an internationalization strategy to mitigate risk. 1. Firm-specific advantages: Once domestic investment was exhausted, a firm could exploit its advantages linked to the market imperfections, which could appropriate the firm with: market power and competitive advantage. Further studies try to explain how firms could sell these advantages in the form of licenses. 2. Removal of conflicts: conflict arises if a firm is already operating in foreign market or looking to expand its operations within the same market. He proposes that the solution for this hurdle arose in the form of collusion, sharing the market with rival or to try and obtain direct control of production. However, it must be taken into account that a reduction in conflict through acquisition of control of operations will increase the market imperfections 3. Propensity to formulate an internationalization strategy to mitigate risk: According to his position, firms are characterized with 3 levels of decision making: the day to day supervision, management decision coordination and long run strategy planning and decision making. The extent to which a company can mitigate risk depends on how well a firm can formulate an internationalization strategy taking these levels of decision into account. Hymer's importance in the field of International Business and Foreign Direct Investment can be summarized in the following reasons: first, he was the first to theorize the existence of Multinational Enterprises (MNE) and the reasons behind Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). He came up with an actual theory taking into account firm specific characteristics and not only macroeconomic principles as it was done before. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_direct_investment
Views: 265 Remember This
Internationalization | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internationalization 00:00:18 1 Entrepreneurs and enterprises 00:01:07 2 Trade theories 00:01:16 2.1 Absolute cost advantage i(Adam Smith, 1776)/i 00:02:03 2.2 Comparative cost advantage i(David Ricardo, 1817)/i 00:02:52 2.3 Gravity model of trade i(Walter Isard, 1954)/i 00:04:35 2.4 Heckscher-Ohlin model i(Eli Heckscher, 1966 & Bertil Ohlin, 1952)/i 00:05:32 2.5 Leontief paradox i(Wassily Leontief, 1954)/i 00:06:16 2.6 Linder hypothesis i(Staffan Burenstam Linder, 1961)/i 00:06:56 2.7 Location theory 00:07:37 2.8 Market imperfection theory i(Stephen Hymer, 1976 & Charles P. Kindleberger, 1969 & Richard E. Caves, 1971)/i 00:09:52 2.9 New Trade Theory 00:10:35 2.10 Specific factors model 00:10:57 3 Traditional approaches 00:11:07 3.1 Diamond model i(Michael Porter)/i 00:11:52 3.2 Diffusion of innovations i(Rogers, 1962)/i 00:12:24 3.3 Eclectic paradigm i(John H. Dunning)/i 00:13:29 3.4 Foreign direct investment theory 00:14:31 3.5 Monopolistic advantage theory i(Stephen Hymer)/i 00:18:00 3.6 Non-availability approach i(Irving B. Kravis, 1956)/i 00:18:42 3.7 Technology gap theory of trade i(Michael Posner)/i 00:19:18 3.8 Uppsala model 00:20:04 4 Further theories 00:20:14 4.1 Contingency theory 00:20:53 4.2 Contract theory 00:21:20 4.3 Economy of scale 00:21:50 4.4 Internalisation theory i(Peter J. Buckley & Mark Casson, 1976; Rugman, 1981)/i 00:22:01 4.5 Product life-cycle theory 00:22:36 4.6 Transaction cost theory 00:23:53 4.7 Theory of the growth of the firm i(Edith Penrose, 1959)/i 00:24:33 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In economics, internationalization is the process of increasing involvement of enterprises in international markets, although there is no agreed definition of internationalization. There are several internationalization theories which try to explain why there are international activities.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Using Internalisation theory, to explain the rationale of the acquisition of Nokia by Microsoft.
 
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I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor (http://www.youtube.com/editor)
Views: 2177 Mustafa Ali
Foreign Direct Investment Definition | Definition of Foreign Direct Investment
 
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Foreign Direct Investment Definition | Definition of Foreign Direct Investment: hedge foreign direct investment ; definition of foreign direct investment; meaning of foreign direct investment: A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country. It is thus distinguished from foreign portfolio investment by a notion of direct control. The origin of the investment does not impact the definition as an FDI: the investment may be made either "inorganically" by buying a company in the target country or "organically" by expanding operations of an existing business in that country. Definition: Broadly, foreign direct investment includes "mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from overseas operations and intra company loans". In a narrow sense, foreign direct investment refers just to building new facility, a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. FDI is the sum of equity capital, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown the balance of payments. FDI usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise. Stock of FDI is the net (i.e., outward FDI minus inward FDI) cumulative FDI for any given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. FDI is one example of international factor movements. A foreign direct investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country. Foreign direct investment is distinguished from foreign portfolio investment, a passive investment in the securities of another country such as public stocks and bonds, by the element of "control". According to the Financial Times, "Standard definitions of control use the internationally agreed 10 percent threshold of voting shares, but this is a grey area as often a smaller block of shares will give control in widely held companies. Moreover, control of technology, management, even crucial inputs can confer de facto control." According to Grazia Ietto-Gillies (2012), prior to Stephen Hymer’s theory regarding direct investment in the 1960s, the reasons behind Foreign Direct Investment and Multinational Corporations were explained by neoclassical economics based on macro economic principles. These theories were based on the classical theory of trade in which the motive behind trade was a result of the difference in the costs of production of goods between two countries, focusing on the low cost of production as a motive for a firm’s foreign activity. For example, Joe S. Bain only explained the internationalization challenge through three main principles: absolute cost advantages, product differentiation advantages and economies of scale. Furthermore, the neoclassical theories were created under the assumption of the existence of perfect competition. Intrigued by the motivations behind large foreign investments made by corporations from the United States of America, Hymer developed a framework that went beyond the existing theories, explaining why this phenomenon occurred, since he considered that the previously mentioned theories could not explain foreign investment and its motivations. ............................................................................. Sources: Background Music: Evgeny Teilor, https://www.jamendo.com/track/1176656/oceans The Lounge: http://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music/jazz Images: www.pixabay.com www.openclipart.com
Views: 541 Free Audio Books
FACTORS IN CONSIDERING FDI LOCATION - IBM 535
 
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IBM 535 ASSIGNMENT
Views: 408 Aqma Manaf
Threats to  and methods of international business
 
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Detailed analysis of the threat to Indian economy and how can we enterEditWatch this pageRead in another language International business Page issues International business consists of trades and transactions at a global level. These include the trade of goods, services, technology, capital and/or knowledge. It involves cross-border transactions of goods and services between two or more countries. Transactions of economic resources include capital, skills, and people for the purpose of the international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, and construction. International business is also known as globalization. Globalization refers to the international trade between countries, which in turn refers to the tendency of international trade, investments, information technology and outsourced manufacturing to weave the economies of diverse countries together.[1] To conduct business overseas, multinational companies need to separate national markets into one global marketplace. In essence there are two macro factors that underline the trend of greater globalization. The first macro-factor consists of eliminating barriers to make cross-border trade easier, such as the free flow of goods and services, and capital. The second macro-factor is technological change, particularly developments in communication, information processing, and transportation technologies. "International business" is also defined as the study of the internationalization process of multinational enterprises. A multinational enterprise (MNE) is a company that has a worldwide approach to markets, production and/or operations in several countries. Well-known MNEs include fast-food companies such as: McDonald's (MCD), YUM (YUM), Starbucks Coffee Company (SBUX), Microsoft (MSFT), etc. Other industrial MNEs leaders include vehicle manufacturers such as: Ford Motor Company, and General Motors (GMC). Some consumer-electronics producers such as Samsung, LG and Sony, and energy companies such as Exxon Mobil, and British Petroleum. Multinational enterprises range from any kind of business activity or market, from consumer goods to machinery manufacture; a company can become an international business. Therefore, to conduct business overseas, companies should be aware of all the factors that might affect any business activities, including, but not limited to: difference in legal systems, political systems, economic policy, language, accounting standards, labor standards, living standards, environmental standards, local cultures, corporate cultures, foreign-exchange markets, tariffs, import and export regulations, trade agreements, climate, education. Each of these factors may require changes in how companies operate from one country to the next. Each factor makes a difference and a connection. One of the first scholars to engage in developing a theory of multinational companies was Stephen Hymer.[2] Throughout his academic life, he developed theories that sought to explain foreign direct investment and why firms become multinational. There were three phases according to Hymer's work. The first phase of Hymer's work was his dissertation in 1960 called the International Operations of National Firms. In this thesis, the author departs from neoclassical theory and opens up a new area of international production. At first, Hymer started analyzing neoclassical theory and the financial investment, where the main reason for capital movement is the difference in interest rates. Then, he started analyzing the characteristics of foreign investment by large companies for production and direct business purposes, calling this Foreign Direct Investment. By analyzing the two types of investments, Hymer distinguished financial investment from direct investment. The main distinguishing feature was control. Portfolio investment is a more passive approach, and the main purpose is financial gain, whereas foreign direct investment a firm has control over the operations abroad. So, the traditional theory of investment based
Views: 135 Alisha Academy
Foreign direct investment in African mining decline.
 
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A number of risks on the African continent have seen foreign direct investment in African mining decline. That's the view of consultancy group Grant Thornton. However, it does say as infrastructure improves on the continent, so, too, will investment. Meanwhile, Mineral Resources Minister Susan Shabangu told a delegation of African mining ministers that Africa's natural resource endowment had the potential to eliminate poverty and inequality on the continent.
Views: 221 SABC Digital News
The Internationalisation of ecommerce - James Hyde, Founder & Operations Director, James & James
 
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James Hyde, director of James & James highlights how companies like Amazon utilise full technology solutions that integrate with web technology.
Views: 206 UKWA
IBO 1- International Business Environment, FDI - Advantages & Disadvantages
 
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The Commerce Aspirants IBO 1- International Business Environment, FDI - Advantages & Disadvantages
International capital flow (CH_07)
 
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Subject : Economics Cources name : Undergraduate Name of Presanter : Neetu Jain Keyword : Swayam Prabha
China FDI slows in Feb
 
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Growth in China's foreign direct investment slowed significantly in February due to seasonal factors. Meanwhile, investment in the services sector grew quickly while investment in manufacturing slowed.
Views: 150 CGTN
International Investment: Stock Market Analysis - Investors Conference - Part 2 (1988)
 
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Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a direct investment into production or business in a country by an individual or company of another country, either by buying a company in the target country or by expanding operations of an existing business in that country. Foreign direct investment is in contrast to portfolio investment which is a passive investment in the securities of another country such as stocks and bonds. Broadly, foreign direct investment includes "mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from overseas operations and intra company loans".[1] In a narrow sense, foreign direct investment refers just to building new facilities. The numerical FDI figures based on varied definitions are not easily comparable. As a part of the national accounts of a country, and in regard to the GDP equation Y=C+I+G+(X-M)[Consumption + gross Investment + Government spending +(eXports - iMports], where I is domestic investment plus foreign investment, FDI is defined as the net inflows of investment (inflow minus outflow) to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor.[2] FDI is the sum of equity capital, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown the balance of payments. FDI usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise. There are two types of FDI: inward and outward, resulting in a net FDI inflow (positive or negative) and "stock of foreign direct investment", which is the cumulative number for a given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.[3] FDI is one example of international factor movements Horizontal FDI arises when a firm duplicates its home country-based activities at the same value chain stage in a host country through FDI.[4] Platform FDI Foreign direct investment from a source country into a destination country for the purpose of exporting to a third country. Vertical FDI takes place when a firm through FDI moves upstream or downstream in different value chains i.e., when firms perform value-adding activities stage by stage in a vertical fashion in a host country.[4] Horizontal FDI decreases international trade as the product of them is usually aimed at host country; the two other types generally act as a stimulus for it. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_investment
Views: 1519 The Film Archives
"The Globotics Upheaval: Globalization, Robotics, and the Future of Work" with Prof Richard Baldwin
 
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Automation, AI and robotics are changing our lives quickly - but digital disruption goes much further than we realise. In this talk, Richard Baldwin, one of the world's leading globalisation experts, will explain that exponential growth in computing, transmission and storage capacities is also creating a new form of 'virtual' globalisation that could undermine the foundations of middle-class prosperity in the West. Richard Baldwin is Professor of International Economics at the Graduate Institute, Geneva since 1991, Editor-in-Chief of VoxEU.org since he founded it in 2007, and ex-President of CEPR, and. He was Visiting Professor at the University of Oxford (2012-2015), and MIT (2003). In terms of government service, he was a Senior Staff Economist for the President’s Council of Economic Advisors in the Bush Administration (1990-1991) on leave from Columbia University Business School where he was Associate Professor. He did his PhD in Economics at MIT with Paul Krugman with whom he has co-authored several articles. He advises governments and international organisations around the world, and is the author of numerous books and articles on international trade, globalisation, regionalism, and European integration. His latest books are, The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalisation, was published in November 2016 by Harvard University Press and The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work due to be published in Jan 2019 by Oxford University Press. Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk
Location Specific Advantages in Asia Pacific: Evidence from Local Markets
 
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Location Specific Advantages in Asia Pacific: Evidence from Local Markets Location Specific Advantages (LSAs) continue to dominate the transfer pricing discourse in India and China. How has the recent OECD Revised Discussion Draft on Intangibles added to the debate, and are LSAs likely to assume relevance in other Asia Pacific countries? Gain new insights on LSAs and how your organization can prepare for potential tax authority scrutiny. (Live presentation was aired on 14 November 2013) www.deloitte.com/ap/dbriefs
Views: 298 Deloitte Dbriefs AP
What is Internalization? | Definition & Explanation of Internalization
 
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What is Internalization? | Definition & Explanation of Internalization: Internalization has different definitions depending on the field that the term is used in. Internalization is the opposite of externalization. Generally, internalization describes the psychological outcome of a conscious mind reasoning about a specific subject; the subject is internalized, and the consideration of the subject is internal. Internalization of ideals might take place following religious conversion, or in the process of, more generally, moral conversion. Internalization is directly associated with learning within an organism (or business) and recalling what has been learned. Psychology and sociology: In sciences such as psychology and sociology, internalization involves the integration of attitudes, values, standards and the opinions of others into one's own identity or sense of self. In psychoanalytic theory, internalization is a process involving the formation of the super ego. Internalization is how man is a product of society. In sociology internalization is the last step. First comes externalization, then comes objectivation, and finally internalization. Many theorists believe that the internalized values of behavior implemented during early socialization are key factors in predicting a child's future moral character. The self-determination theory proposes a motivational continuum from the extrinsic to intrinsic motivation and autonomous self-regulation. Some research suggests a child's moral self starts to develop around age three. These early years of socialization may be the underpinnings of moral development in later childhood. Proponents of this theory suggest that children whose view of self is "good and moral" tend to have a developmental trajectory toward pro-social behavior and few signs of anti-social behavior. In one child developmental study, researchers examined two key dimensions of early conscience – internalization of rules of conduct and empathic affects to others – as factors that may predict future social, adaptive and competent behavior. Data was collected from a longitudinal study of children, from two parent families, at age 25, 38, 52, 67 and 80 months. Children's internalization of each parent's rules and empathy toward each parent's simulated distress were observed at 25, 38 and 52 months. Parents and teachers rated their adaptive, competent, pro-social behavior and anti-social behavior at 80 months. The researchers found that first, both the history of the child's early internalization of parental rules and the history of his or her empathy predicted the children's competent and adaptive functioning at 80 months, as rated by parents and teachers. Second, children with stronger histories of internalization of parental rules from 25 to 52 months perceived themselves as more moral at 67 months. Third, the children that showed stronger internalization from 25 to 52 months came to see themselves as more moral and "good". These self-perceptions, in turn, predicted the way parents and teachers would rate their competent and adaptive functioning at 80 months. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Sources: Text: Text of this video has been taken from Wikipedia, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License Background Music: Evgeny Teilor, https://www.jamendo.com/track/1176656/oceans The Lounge: http://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music/jazz Images: www.pixabay.com www.openclipart.com
Views: 1802 Free Audio Books
THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT
 
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This video is done by GROUP 2, which are: A Harindra Ramzyono Haritz Marchelyn Pongsapan Supervised by: Prof. Eko Ganis Sukoharsono, Ph. D., CSRS., CSRA. Arranged as part of fulfillment of assignment for the subject International Business in Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia.
Eclectic Paradigm
 
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An Easy Overview Of "Eclectic Paradigm"
Views: 12852 Christopher Hunt