What is a trade deficit? Well, it all has to do with imports and exports and, well, trade. This week Jacob and Adriene walk you through the basics of imports, exports, and exchange. So, you remember the specialization and trade thing, right? So, that leads to imports and exports. Economically, in the aggregate, this is usually a good thing. Globalization and free trade do tend to increase overall wealth. But not everybody wins. Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark, Eric Kitchen, Jessica Wode, Jeffrey Thompson, Steve Marshall, Moritz Schmidt, Robert Kunz, Tim Curwick, Jason A Saslow, SR Foxley, Elliot Beter, Jacob Ash, Christian, Jan Schmid, Jirat, Christy Huddleston, Daniel Baulig, Chris Peters, Anna-Ester Volozh, Ian Dundore, Caleb Weeks -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 1038231 CrashCourse
Prof. Patrick Augustin, Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University
Views: 38 IDC Herzliya
Foreign exchange risk continues to affect multinational companies. In this CreditMatters TV segment, Standard & Poor’s Senior Director Shripad Joshi explains how the stronger dollar has created financial reporting challenges for companies and what lies ahead.
Views: 396 S&P Global Ratings
Subject: Business Economics Paper: International Financial Management Module: Managing foreign exchange risk and exposure II Content Writer:
Views: 7090 Vidya-mitra
Experts say trade wars have historically been damaging to both the country imposing the tariffs and those having to pay them. So why is U.S. President Donald Trump insisting on entering a trade war? Aalia Adam leads the latest installment of "Global News Explains," as she explores why the protectionist methods of trade wars create environments where everyone loses and how the U.S. only needs to look to the Great Depression to understand the perils of aggressive trade tariffs. For more info, please go to https://globalnews.ca/?p=4334271&preview=true Subscribe to Global News Channel HERE: http://bit.ly/20fcXDc Like Global News on Facebook HERE: http://bit.ly/255GMJQ Follow Global News on Twitter HERE: http://bit.ly/1Toz8mt #GlobalNewsExplains
Views: 33183 Global News
Money transfer services can save you a lot of money when doing international transfers compared to the ATM or the bank. How do they work and are they worth the effort? Recommended money transfer services: **1st choice** CurrencyFair https://www.currencyfair.com/?channel=RGN3H1 [Referral link. Free transfer + 30€ bonus if you transfer 2000€ or equivalent] Usually the least expensive, but also the smallest list of supported currencies/countries. Use CurrencyFair first if your money comes *from* Europe, UK, Australia or any country where CurrencyFair has a local bank account. List of supported currencies to ‘send in’: https://app.currencyfair.com/support/en/sending-in/16 Check if they have a local account to ‘send in’ your currency: https://www.currencyfair.com/how-it-works/exchange-process-times/ (For example, they do not have local accounts in the US, Canada and New Zealand even if they accept the respective currencies.) **2nd Choice** TransferWise http://bit.ly/creativenomad_TW4 [Referral Link to support this channel. The free transfer promotion has been phased out! Sorry. :( ] Use TransferWise first if your money comes *from* the US, Canada, New Zealand or any supported country with a local account. Also use them to get an extra free transfer after using up your CurrencyFair freebie. List of supported countries here: http://bit.ly/creativenomad_TW5 List of supported currencies here: http://bit.ly/creativenomad_TW6 How to make a transfer step-by-step here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWCFao8kcbI **3rd Choice** XE.com http://www.xe.com/xemoneytransfer/ Use XE.com if you need to transfer from a currency/country that is not supported by CurrencyFair or TransferWise, like sending money *from* Mexico. List of supported currencies here: http://www.xe.com/xemoneytransfer/ca/#currencies **EXTRA INFO** Good post comparing various money transfer services: https://www.currencyfair.com/blog/money-transfer-companies-compared/ Excellent website that compares various services including spread and fees for a given trade: https://moneytis.com/ Tips: ** You need a bank account at both ends of the transaction. The receiving account usually doesn't have to be yours, so you can use a (trusted!) friend's account if your are in a pinch. ** Compare your particular trade between services, pricing varies a lot depending on countries and currencies. ** Money transfer services are usually slow. The delay can be from a few hours to a few business days to more than a week in some cases. Plan ahead. ** Always test a new transfer service with a smaller amount first (a few hundred dollars or equivalent) to make sure everything is working as expected. ** Break down very big transfers into smaller chunks. It minimizes risk if anything goes wrong and it avoids getting flagged by government checks (usually around 10000US$, varies by country). It also evens out variations in the exchange rate if you do multiple transfers over a few weeks instead of all on the same day.
Views: 66132 CreativeNomad TV
Naz Naini and Rob Vaughan talk about the quarter one 2013 update to our country risk map. They explore how the UK's budget, civil unrest in Africa and the financial turmoil in Cyprus is affecting how businesses are affected by country risk. For more information please go to: http://www.pwc.co.uk/the-economy/issues/country-risk-premia-quarterly-update.jhtml
Views: 4817 PwCUK
The risk that businesses, investors and governments may face when there is a change in politics or political outcomes. As such, if there is a change in the politics of a country that negatively affects your goals as a business or investor, then that is known as political risk. For more lessons and lecture notes go to www.gaksu.com
Views: 4709 cedric chehab
Gennecho Finance - Investing Basics 101 In this video we will go over the Exchange Rate Risk associated with Investing Personal Finance: Turning Money into Wealth by Arthur J. Keown http://amzn.to/2B3ROcR Sign up to Gennecho's weekly newsletter! http://gennechofinance.gr8.com/ Subscribe to our YouTube Channel Follow us on Twitter @GennechoFinance Like us on Facebook @gennechofinance Follow us on Instagram gennechofinance
Views: 12 Gennecho Learning
What is POLITICAL RISK? What does POLITICAL RISK mean? POLITICAL RISK meaning - POLITICAL RISK definition - POLITICAL RISK explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Political risk is a type of risk faced by investors, corporations, and governments that political decisions, events, or conditions will significantly affect the profitability of a business actor or the expected value of a given economic action. Political risk can be understood and managed with reasoned foresight and investment. The term political risk has had many different meanings over time. Broadly speaking, however, political risk refers to the complications businesses and governments may face as a result of what are commonly referred to as political decisions—or "any political change that alters the expected outcome and value of a given economic action by changing the probability of achieving business objectives". Political risk faced by firms can be defined as "the risk of a strategic, financial, or personnel loss for a firm because of such nonmarket factors as macroeconomic and social policies (fiscal, monetary, trade, investment, industrial, income, labour, and developmental), or events related to political instability (terrorism, riots, coups, civil war, and insurrection)." Portfolio investors may face similar financial losses. Moreover, governments may face complications in their ability to execute diplomatic, military or other initiatives as a result of political risk. A low level of political risk in a given country does not necessarily correspond to a high degree of political freedom. Indeed, some of the more stable states are also the most authoritarian. Long-term assessments of political risk must account for the danger that a politically oppressive environment is only stable as long as top-down control is maintained and citizens prevented from a free exchange of ideas and goods with the outside world. Understanding risk partly as probability and partly as impact provides insight into political risk. For a business, the implication for political risk is that there is a measure of likelihood that political events may complicate its pursuit of earnings through direct impacts (such as taxes or fees) or indirect impacts (such as opportunity cost forgone). As a result, political risk is similar to an expected value such that the likelihood of a political event occurring may reduce the desirability of that investment by reducing its anticipated returns. There are both macro- and micro-level political risks. Macro-level political risks have similar impacts across all foreign actors in a given location. While these are included in country risk analysis, it would be incorrect to equate macro-level political risk analysis with country risk as country risk only looks at national-level risks and also includes financial and economic risks. Micro-level risks focus on sector, firm, or project specific risk. Macro-level political risk looks at non-project specific risks. Macro political risks affect all participants in a given country. A common misconception is that macro-level political risk only looks at country-level political risk; however, the coupling of local, national, and regional political events often means that events at the local level may have follow-on effects for stakeholders on a macro-level. Other types of risk include government currency actions, regulatory changes, sovereign credit defaults, endemic corruption, war declarations and government composition changes. These events pose both portfolio investment and foreign direct investment risks that can change the overall suitability of a destination for investment.
Views: 2880 The Audiopedia
This video may contain information of general interest about current legal issues, but does not give legal advice.
Views: 497 Gowling WLG
In this talk Johannes Leitner, head of the Competence Center for Black Sea Region Studies, takes a close look at risk factors in the markets of the Black Sea Region that are beyond economic risks such as GDP development, demand structures and competition. Instead, he unveils political risk factors that impact firm performance in these markets and will highlight the pitfalls of political systems which are characterized through the parallel existence of formal and informal institutions. Following a brief theoretical insight into political risk analysis he will discuss a number of cases from the Black Sea Region and conclude with managerial implications of these political risk factors.-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Associate Professor Sasha Molchanov shares his research insights on exporting to politically risky countries and provides key learnings for businesses looking to export internationally. Click 'SHOW MORE' below for more information. The New Zealand government has the stated a target of lifting exports to 40% of GDP by 2025. For firms wishing to grow by exporting internationally, there are many decisions to be made about where and when – but many companies fail to consider political risk. Find out more about Massey University’s Business School: http://bit.ly/1rAUJPT Find out more about Sacha: http://bit.ly/1wqTv8f Other videos in this series: Women in Leadership: http://bit.ly/1yxaJ8n Measuring the Return on Marketing Investment: http://bit.ly/1Bx6HxI Entrepreneurship and Innovation: http://bit.ly/1vLxm6O Diversity Management is Dead: http://bit.ly/1wY3VzT The Living Wage: http://bit.ly/1yz4UST Connect with Massey University: Massey's Twitter: https://twitter.com/masseyuni Massey's Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/masseyuniversity Massey's Instagram: http://instagram.com/masseyuni Massey's LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/company/massey-university Massey's Website: http://goo.gl/99KfgQ Disclaimer: http://goo.gl/hwAbwu __________________________ Thanks to 90 Seconds for the production of these videos. Find out more about 90 Seconds by visiting their website: http://90seconds.tv/
Views: 2520 Massey University
Many risks are increasing in likelihood and could well become base case scenarios.
Doing export? Read our analysis and forecasts in 160 countries available online on http://www.coface.com Contact us if you need to mitigate trade risk, avoid international debts and make sure you are dealing with financially strong companies. We have experts on the ground!
Views: 1010 Coface Group
In which John discusses the US national debt, the federal budget deficit, plans for shrinking or eliminating the deficit, and tries to provide some context to the political rhetoric and statistics that are constantly thrown around in an election season. Along the way, I hope you'll understand why the United States' sovereign debt hasn't led us to an economic crisis, but also why budget deficits need to shrink in order to ensure that credit remains inexpensive and the US continues to enjoy the trust of the world economy. (Friendly reminder: Educational videos, by extensive precedent, are allowed to be longer than 4:00.) Here's why I think the gold standard is a bad idea: 1. By restricting money supply to the supply of gold, you risk shrinking the money supply just because of a shock leading to a disruption in supply from mining. This creates a lot of volatility in the money supply for no reason. 2. The gold standard limits a government's ability to respond to changes in the market, which can (and has) led to unescapable deflationary spirals. 3. Far from inspiring investor confidence, its implementation would crush it: http://www.ocregister.com/opinion/gold-369936-standard-money.html Posters and stuff: http://dftba.com My tumblr: http://fishingboatproceeds.tumblr.com My twitter: http://www.twitter.com/realjohngreen HERE ARE A LOT OF LINKS TO NERDFIGHTASTIC THINGS: Shirts and Stuff: http://dftba.com/artist/30/Vlogbrothers Hank's Music: http://dftba.com/artist/15/Hank-Green John's Books: http://amzn.to/j3LYqo ====================== Hank's Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/hankgreen Hank's Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/hankimon Hank's tumblr: http://edwardspoonhands.tumblr.com John's Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/realjohngreen John's Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/johngreenfans John's tumblr: http://fishingboatproceeds.tumblr.com ====================== Other Channels Crash Course: http://www.youtube.com/crashcourse SciShow: http://www.youtube.com/scishow Gaming: http://www.youtube.com/hankgames VidCon: http://www.youtube.com/vidcon Hank's Channel: http://www.youtube.com/hankschannel Truth or Fail: http://www.youtube.com/truthorfail ====================== Nerdfighteria http://effyeahnerdfighters.com/ http://effyeahnerdfighters.com/nftumblrs http://reddit.com/r/nerdfighters http://nerdfighteria.info/ A Bunny (\(\ ( - -) ((') (')
Views: 986110 vlogbrothers
Italy is the only country, alongside with Greece, that is poorer now than before having the EURO as their official currency. In fact, their economy has been stagnated for two decades and they are one of the biggest indebted economies, with a debt bigger than 130% of their GDP. Many European pundits call this country “the sick man in Europe”. Nevertheless, 20 years ago, Italy was one of the wealthiest economies on the planet. Their citizens were even richer than those from Great Britain and their industry was the second biggest in all across Europe. The entire world enjoyed the music of Eros Ramazzotti or Luciano Pavarotti, the Spaguetti Western movies and... well, the Rocco Siffredi movies too. Now those days are gone. This is why many Italian politicians suggest that leaving the Euro would be a solution to get back to the golden years of the Italian economy. But is it right? Is the Euro the problem in Italy? Why are they in such a big crisis? And why did Italy become so rich in the 80s and the 90s, despite the corruption, the red tape and the political unrest? In this video we will answer all of those questions. *ERRATUM Min 8.40: There is a mistake in the chart. It says "1 It LIRA = 400 DM" and "1 It. LIRA = 1300 DM". We meant it the other way around. I should say "1 DM = 400 It. LIRA" and 1 DM = 1300 It. LIRA". Sorry for the inconvenience. And don't forget to visit our friend’s podcast, Reconsider Media: http://www.reconsidermedia.com/ Other videos from VisualPolitik: Why is GERMANY such an INDUSTRIAL model?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CAbcHMOwobg&t=7s Why is GERMANY growing more than JAPAN?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vou96yLuWXw&t=25s Can MACRON save FRANCE from its CRISIS?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jskeZMDsDhM&t=397s Interesting Links: Italian shadow economy: https://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21603073-italys-inclusion-illicit-activities-its-figures-excites-much-interest-sex The Italian Lira, the Exchange rate and employment: http://bruegel.org/2017/01/the-italian-lira-the-exchange-rate-and-employment-in-the-erm/ How mittlestand model could boost Italian SMEs: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-mittelstand-model-could-boost-italian-smes-marzio-perrelli/ Italian red tape: http://www.theflorentine.net/news/2006/01/beyond-the-red-tape/ Italy needs to get rid of red tape: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-italy-bureaucracy/analysis-italy-needs-red-tape-bonfire-before-labor-reform-idUSBRE8320M420120403 Bushwick Tarantella is made by Kevin MacLeod and it us under a Creative Commons Attribution (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1300002 Artist: http://incompetech.com/
Views: 296001 VisualPolitik EN
Do you know all the costs involved with investing in, buying, and owning an ETF? Learn how to choose low-cost ETFs that work for you. Important Information **You must buy and sell Vanguard ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage Services (we offer them commission-free) or through another broker (which may charge commissions). See the Vanguard Brokerage Services commission and fee schedules on https://vgi.vg/2yfnvdo for limits. Vanguard ETF Shares are not redeemable directly with the issuing fund other than in very large aggregations worth millions of dollars. ETFs are subject to market volatility. When buying or selling an ETF, you will pay or receive the current market price, which may be more or less than net asset value.** All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest. Costs are only one factor to consider when making investment decisions. There may be other material differences between investment products that must be considered prior to investing. For example, investments in stocks and bonds issued by non-U.S. companies are subject to risks including country/regional risk, which is the chance that political upheaval, financial troubles, or natural disasters will adversely affect the value of securities issued by companies in foreign countries or regions; and currency risk, which is the chance that the value of a foreign investment, measured in U.S. dollars, will decrease because of unfavorable changes in currency exchange rates. These risks are especially high in emerging markets. Funds that concentrate on a relatively narrow market sector face the risk of higher share-price volatility. © 2017 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor of the Vanguard Funds.
Views: 4552 Vanguard
So, we've been putting off a kind of basic question here. What is money? What is currency? How are the two different. Well, not to give away too much, but money has a few basic functions. It acts as a store of value, a medium of exchange, and as a unit of account. Money isn't just bills and coins. It can be anything that meets these three criteria. In US prisons, apparently, pouches of Mackerel are currency. Yes, mackerel the fish. Paper and coins work as money because they're backed by the government, which is an advantage over mackerel. So, once you've got money, you need finance. We'll talk about borrowing, lending, interest, and stocks and bonds. Also, this episode features a giant zucchini, which Adriene grew in her garden. So that's cool. Special thanks to Dave Hunt for permission to use his PiPhone video. this guy really did make an artisanal smartphone! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8eaiNsFhtI8 Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Fatima Iqbal, Penelope Flagg, Eugenia Karlson, Alex S, Jirat, Tim Curwick, Christy Huddleston, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Today I Found Out, Avi Yashchin, Chris Peters, Eric Knight, Jacob Ash, Simun Niclasen, Jan Schmid, Elliot Beter, Sandra Aft, SR Foxley, Ian Dundore, Daniel Baulig, Jason A Saslow, Robert Kunz, Jessica Wode, Steve Marshall, Anna-Ester Volozh, Christian, Caleb Weeks, Jeffrey Thompson, James Craver, and Markus Persson -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 754057 CrashCourse
Is there an ideal exchange value for the Canadian dollar for Canadian farmers? Who benefits most at a lower exchange rate? What does it mean for trade (at the farm level)? In this podcast Keith Ferley, Commodity Futures Advisor at RBC Dominion Securities provides an overview of the role of exchange rates in managing your farm business.
Views: 578 RBC
TO USE OR PRINT this presentation click : http://videosliders.com/r/1025 ============================================================== Inflation control around the world: Why are some countries more successful than others? The views are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Central Bank of Iceland Thórarinn G. Pétursson Central Bank of Iceland and Reykjavík University The 6th Norges Bank Monetary Policy Conference: Inflation Targeting Twenty Years On, Oslo 11-12 June 2009 ,Two key questions This paper attempts to address two key questions concerning inflation performance Why does inflation tend to be more volatile in some countries than in others? What explains the general decline in inflation volatility observed over the last two decades? ,Country sampleInclusion criteria Focus on relatively developed, market-based economies Countries similarly developed as OECD countries Countries with PPP adjusted GDP per capita below the lowest OECD member (Turkey) are excluded Countries of similar size as OECD countries Countries with PPP adjusted GDP below the smallest OECD member (Iceland) are excluded Final country sample of 42 countries Estimation period 1985-2005 ,Country sampleTwo interesting country groups Combating inflation seems particularly difficult in two sub-groups Very small, open economies (VSOE) A sample of 7 countries with population below 2.5 million Emerging market economies (EME) A sample of 15 emerging market countries ,Country sampleDifferent country groups ,Country sampleTreatment and control groups The non-inflation targeting group therefore includes a very heterogeneous group of countries Ranging from very small to very large countries and from emerging market economies to very developed industrial countries Wide array of monetary policy frameworks ranging from pegs, currency boards, monetary unions to floating rates with monetary targets or hybrid frameworks Therefore offers a very interesting “control” group to test against the “treatment” group of IT countries Country sample also includes a number of very small and reasonably developed countries that are usually excluded in this type of analysis ,Inflation performance ,Question 1 Why does inflation tend to be more volatile in some countries than in others? ,Cross-country analysisVariables included Two measures of economic structure Economic size and per capita income Output volatility Openness to trade Two indicators of exposure to external shocks Cyclical co-movement of domestic and world output and cyclical co-movement of private consumption and exchange rate Two indicators of trade patterns Trade diversification and the share of commodities in merchandise exports Two measures of importance of exchange rate fluctuations Volatility of the risk premium in multilateral exchange rates and level of exchange rate pass-through Two indicators of monetary policy performance Predictability of monetary policy and central bank independence ,Measuring exchange rate risk Use a general signal-extraction approach suggested by Durlauf and Hall for rational expectations models Models are a sum of two unobserved components Combination of the data implied under the null hypothesis that the model is true Combination of the data under the alternative: model noise They show how this model noise can be extracted from the data and how a lower-bound of the variance of this noise component can be constructed ,Measuring exchange rate risk In the context of this paper I use the standard workhorse of exchange rate determination Money market eq. PPP condition UIP condition A time-varying risk premium has been added to the standard UIP condition Can also be interpreted as the rational expectations deviation from the model – i.e. the non-fundamental part of exchange rate behaviour or model noise ,Measuring exchange rate risk This can be solved to give the standard present-value condition Where f are economic fundamentals and κ the present value of the current and expected risk premium (or noise) ,Measuring exchange rate risk By defining the perfect-
Views: 41 slide show me
What is MACRO RISK? What does MACRO RISK mean? MACRO RISK meaning - MACRO RISK definition - MACRO RISK explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Macro risk is financial risk that is associated with macroeconomic or political factors. There are at least three different ways this phrase is applied. It can refer to economic or financial risk found in stocks and funds, to political risk found in different countries, and to the impact of economic or financial variables on political risk. Macro risk can also refer to types of economic factors which influence the volatility over time of investments, assets, portfolios, and the intrinsic value of companies. Macro risk associated with stocks, funds, and portfolios is usually of concern to financial planners, securities traders, and investors with longer time horizons. Some of the macroeconomic variables that generate macro risk include unemployment rates, price indexes, monetary policy variables, interest rates, exchange rates, housing starts, agricultural exports, and even commodity prices such as gold. Models that incorporate macro risk are generally of two types. One type, used primarily by stock traders and institutions, focuses on how short-term changes in macro risk factors impact stock returns. These models include the arbitrage pricing theory and the modern portfolio theory families of models. The other models that incorporate macro risk data are valuation models or the closely related fundamental analysis models. Used primarily by those focusing on longer term investments including wealth managers, financial planners, and some institutional investors, these models are examples of intrinsic value analysis. In such analysis, forecasts of future company earnings are used to estimate the current and expected value of the investment being studied. Macro risk factors include any economic variables that are used to construct these estimates. Understanding that macro risk factors influence the intrinsic value of a particular investment is important because when the factors change values, errors can be introduced in the corresponding intrinsic value forecasts. Investors who follow the Black Swan Theory may try to reduce the overall exposure of their investments to different macro risk factors in order to reduce the impact of economic shocks. This may be accomplished using commercial portfolio optimization tools or by using mathematical programming methods. Another way macro risk is used is to differentiate between countries as potential places to invest. In this meaning, the level of a country’s macro risk differentiates its level of political stability and its general growth opportunities from those of other countries, and thus helps identify preferred countries for investment either directly or through country or regionally oriented funds. Such analysis of political risk is also used in the analysis of financial derivatives such as credit default swaps and other sophisticated financial products. International rankings of countries, often updated annually, provide insight into their relative political and social stability and economic growth. A new application of macro risk is essentially a converse of the first two meanings; it refers to how macroeconomics and fluctuations in financial variables generate political risk. For example, economic turbulence that leads to higher or lower levels of approval for the president’s policies would be a form of this macro risk.
Views: 349 The Audiopedia
This video may contain information of general interest about current legal issues, but does not give legal advice.
Views: 172 Gowling WLG
In theory, penetrating exciting new markets should be simple. Yet it can be daunting once cultural, linguistic and demographic factors, as well as exchange rates and country risk, are taken into account. What are the ways to successfully spread your wings? Dr. Kewley from The Eurasia Consortium shares strategies deployed to take Malaysian brands such as MimpiKita to foreign shores.
Views: 175 The Eurasia Consortium Malaysia
Welcome to another 2 Minute Finance for Expats. Our topic today is “Currency Exchange” or more specifically what you need to think about when moving money from one country to another. There are 6 primary currency considerations for expats: 1. If you are transferring money through your normal bank, you may be losing up to 2.5% of the value of each transfer because of hidden costs; The bid/offer spread is the difference between the buying price and selling price for any currency. This means that if you have dollars and need Euros the exchange rate could be 1.19 but if you want to sell your Euros to buy dollars then the price could be 1.25! 2. International transfers take time – Using a retail bank to transfer money can take up to 5 working days from when the money leaves the sending account to when it arrives in the receiving account. 3. Making small transfers costs more than large ones – If you have small regular payments or income in a foreign currency, it will cost far more to change small amounts of money regularly than to save it in a local account and transfer larger sums when required. Arranging a regular foreign-exchange transfer in advance can significantly reduce the cost. 4. Planning for future expenses in the relevant currency can reduce the risk that changing exchange rates could affect your savings and spending power. Think about the currency you will need to spend rather than the one you are trying to save. 5. Using credit or debit cards and ATMs in a foreign currency can have huge costs associated with it. On top of the bid-offer spread, many banks and card providers will add an additional fee of up to 5% and sometimes a fixed fee on top of that. Check with your card provider which foreign use fees might apply and try not to use foreign cards for local purchases. 6. If your life and your money are internationally focused, diversify by currency the way you would for other investments. Multiple currencies in your portfolio can reduce long and short-term risks. So if you have a need to transfer money regularly or in large amounts look at specialist currency brokers who will likely save you money. ----------------------------------------------- Get many forms of ongoing financial education including seminars, webinars, monthly newsletters and self-help guides by visiting our website www.beaconfinancialeducation.org. Disclosure: This presentation was prepared for education purposes only. This presentation is not legal, tax or investment advice, nor is it to be construed as such. Each individual’s circumstances are different, you should seek legal, tax and/or investment advice to address any specific questions you may have.
Views: 32 Beacon Financial Education
✅ please leave me a tip here ✅ https://www.seekingthetruth.info/tipjar/ ✅ https://www.patreon.com/truthseeker 💻50% Off Coupon for Life Torguard VPN Promo code: truth101 💻Torguard VPN Services: https://goo.gl/iBDGTj Lord Jacob Rothschild has boasted that the New World Order will have full control over humanity by the year 2018. An issue of the Rothschild controlled Economist magazine published in 1988 openly told its readers that a world currency would be in place by 2018. Disclose.tv reports: With this in mind, the Economist is operating as a quasi-propaganda arm for the banking empire and it is meant to prime the public opinion that the globalist agenda will implement. CONTROLLING INTEREST OF THE ECONOMIST HELD BY ROTHSCHILD FAMILY In the magazine, on January 9, 1988, it was said that 30 years from now people in the United States, Europe and the Japanese along with others in countries that are rich, will be paying for shopping using the same currency. The price of items will not be shown in yen, dollars or the great British pound, but in one currency. This currency is going to be favored by shoppers along with companies as it would be a great deal more convenient than the different currencies of today. IDEA OF SINGLE CURRENCY STARTED BACK IN 1988 AND WAS CALLED OUTLANDISH The idea of a single currency back in 1988 seemed to be outlandish. One of the biggest changes to the world economy since the 70s has been that flowing money has taken over trade in goods as being the force behind driving the exchange rates. Due to the integrations of the financial markets around the globe, the differences in national economic policies that are known to change the interest rates, big transfers of financial assets are made from one country to another. The transfers are able to swamp the trade revenue flows in effect on demand and supply of the different currencies and so in the effect on the exchange rates. Telecommunications technology is continuing to grow in advancement and transactions are going to be cheaper and they will get faster. Thanks to economic policies that are uncoordinated, currencies are only going to get even more volatile. THE CURRENCY UNION IS GOING TO BE DIFFICULT TO RESIST The national economic boundaries are very slowly dissolving and the trend is going to continue, and the appeal of the currency union is going to be hard to resist to everyone, apart from the foreign-exchange traders along with governments. With the new single currency, the economic adjustment to the shift in relative prices is something that is going to occur smoothly, and it will happen automatically. With no currency risk trade, employment and investment will be spurred on. Source: http://newspunch.com/rothschild-new-world-order-2018/ Join me on my new Social Network called Buddylist to discuss more. https://www.buddylist.co Our Official Online Store : https://www.seekingthetruth.info/store/ Every sale will help this channel keep going. #SeekingTheTruth My YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/seekingthetruth101 Add me up on Facebook if you like: https://www.facebook.com/joshwho1 Find me on Steemit Here: https://steemit.com/@truthseeker101 Support the channel: https://www.patreon.com/truthseeker My Bitcoin Wallet Address: 17S5o2Thyqcw9TqtFyQAQdAtjSwJJ95rcE PayPal Address: [email protected] Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted. "Fair Use" guidelines: www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html
Views: 794784 #SeekingTheTruth
In this episode of Investing Basics for Savvy Women we’re going to talk about financial risk. There are actually many types of risk that we could discuss. There’s political risk, country risk, interest rate risk, credit or default risk, currency exchange risk and many more. But for the purposes of this basic investment series, were going to limit the discussion to just a couple of risks. If you would like to set up a time to discuss Financial Planning, Investing or Wealth Management you can reach us at 760-692-5700 www.SavvyUp.com #SavvyUP
Views: 258 Savvy Women Wealth Management
This is the thirteenth and final lecture in the "International Finance" series in which I discuss Political Risk. What is it, how is it measured and how can multinational corporations protect themselves from or manage the political risks they face? For example, when Disney decided to open Eurodisney in France, they could have owned the entire operation outright. Instead they designed the financing and made other arrangements that significantly protected themselves from political risk. In this lecture, I discuss the logic underlying various measures that companies can take to manage their political risk.
Views: 3741 Understanding Finance
It means applying general management principles to financial resources of the enterprise mar 14, 2013 qantas global definition 'global management' hedging if businesses are looking operate worldwide they need formulate a clear approach interest rates is process minimising risk currency fluctuations. Masteropleidingen financial management meaning, objectives and functions. It means financial management in an international business environment systems may be classified as domestic or overseas, closed open. A wide international approach encompasses both emerging economies, and anglo american continental european contexts. Collins english international financial management 9781337099738 economics online master's degree in concentration. The field of international finance concerns itself with studying global capital markets and might involve monitoring movements in this programme equips you knowledge, understanding skills required to define, analyse evaluate real complex financial management problems on both a societal level as well the companies institutions design solutions for these. Googleusercontent search. Entry bookkeeping, meaning that the amount involved in each transaction is interned on of two apr 24, 2014 essence international financial management s ifm a popular concept which means finance an business environment, it implies, doing trade and making money through exchange foreign currency. Able to understand multinational financial management; Explain the concept of equilibrium exchange rates; Differentiate between nominal and real ratesInternational finance definition investopediainternational management wikipedia. International finance definition investopediainternational financial management wikipedia. A 'domestic' is one inside a country. S the international financial activities help apr 30, 2013 manager willinvolve study of exchange rate and currency markets theory practice estimating future various risks such as political country risk, exchangerate risk interest management techniques cost capital budgeting jul 22, 2017course number 1470fritz foley fallq2; 3 credits 20 sessions papermost finance courses textbooks implicitly assume that firms operate in only a single differences between countries are irrelevant. This section is concerned with topics that include foreign direct investment and currency exchange rates aug 31, 2017 international financial management a well known term in today's world it also as finance. Furthermore, you will have opportunities definition of international diversification in the financial dictionary by free online english and encyclopedia. It is different because of the currency countries, dissimilar political situations, imperfect markets, diversified sep 26, 2017 international finance activities help organizations engage in cross border transactions with foreign business partners, such as customers, suppliers and lenders. In its assessment, s&p emphasises the regulatory stability provided by new gas sector
Views: 273 Evette Freudenburg Tipz
In this video module recorded for the Certified Hedge Fund Professional (CHP) designation, we cover the topic, "Currency Risk." If you would like to learn more about the Hedge Fund Group (HFG) or the Certified Hedge Fund Professional designation, then please use this link to visit our website and meet our team http://hedgefundcertification.com/.
Views: 623 HedgeFundGroup
-- Created using Powtoon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 174 Alia Natasya
Check out these 10 countries with the largest gold reserves in the world! This top 10 list features some of the richest and wealthiest countries on earth that have tons of gold bars stacked up somewhere! Subscribe For New Videos! http://goo.gl/UIzLeB Watch our "SURPRISING And Interesting Facts About Money!" video here: https://youtu.be/ONpChSPqVc4 Watch our "Most AMAZING Discoveries With A Metal Detector!" video here: https://youtu.be/45JveYKafVo Watch our "Most EXPENSIVE Diamonds In The World!" video here: https://youtu.be/RcZATf3Lmb0 10.) India According to the World Gold Council, the Bank of India currently holds 557.7 tons of gold. It is one of the largest stores of gold in the world! This makes up 9.9 % of the country’s total foreign reserve. Foreign exchange reserves is money or other assets held by a nation’s central bank so they can back the national currency. India, home to 1.25 billion people, is the number one largest consumer of the precious metal. Furthermore, India is one of the most reliable drivers of global demand. For example, India’s festival and wedding season, which runs from October to December, has historically been a major market for gold. And probably, one of the most interesting facts about India and gold is that India rarely invests much in gold. This is because as a country, India operates under the belief that buying gold leads to a deficit. And their belief must be proving right as things also seem to be improving for India. For instance, if you look at the last few years, India has increased its gold reserves from 557.74 to 557.77. While this might not seem like a lot, India is also at its highest point in history! In addition to what the country holds, Indian households which are considered the world’s largest hoarders of gold, hold a record 23,000-24,000 tons, which is worth about $800 billion. 9.) Netherlands In the past few years, the Netherlands has held 52% of its foreign reserve in gold. The Netherlands has a reported 612.45 tons. In 2016 it was reported that the bank was looking for a place to store all its gold because they were going to renovate the vaults and needed to moving it. The Dutch central bank is planning to move the country’s gold reserves from the center of Amsterdam to a new complex called the Cash Center. Like most countries, Dutch gold is also held in banks around the world to reduce risk. Security measures to guard the gold 24/7 have become a problem in Amsterdam. 189,000 kilos of gold will be moved at the beginning of 2022. Maybe this is one reason that over the last decade and a half, the Netherlands was selling off tons of gold in order to reduce its reserve. However, there weren’t that many buyers out there and they sold less than the country wanted. More recently the country has had less ambition to sell gold. Currently, the country holds the same amount of tons, 612.45 that they have over the last few years. However, the country has increased its percentage of foreign reserves to 61.2 %. 8.) Japan Japan is another country which had been increasing its gold reserves since the 1960’s. Their official gold holdings were reported at 765.2 tons. About 2.4% of Japan’s gold today is in foreign reserve. Historically, Japan has always held a bit more gold than other countries. This was true until 2011, when they began to sell some of their reserve in order to pump money into the economy after the tsunami and the following Fukushima nuclear disaster. But even with selling, Japan’s central bank has been one of the most aggressive practitioners of quantitative easing. For example, in January of 2016, it lowered interest rates below zero, which has helped fuel demand in gold around the world. 7.) Switzerland Prior to 1997, Switzerland was steadily building its gold reserves. In 1997, the decision was made to sell some of those reserves to bolster the Swiss currency and diversify the foreign reserves. The percent of foreign reserves in Switzerland is currently 6.7 %. Switzerland actually has the world’s largest reserves of gold per capita and currently has reported 1,040 tons. Over time, many citizens in the country started to feel like the bank was getting rid of too much gold. They then banded together with the “Save the Swiss” movement. However, once everyone was able to vote in 2014, the vote came to a no, and gold continued to be sold. During World War II, Switzerland became the center of the gold trade in Europe, making transactions with both the Allies and Axis powers. Today, much of its gold trading is done with Hong Kong and China. Around last year, the Swiss National Bank made a $5.9 billion profit, reportedly from its gold holdings. Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!
Views: 2184533 Origins Explained
Scarbrough and Bannockburn Global Forex, LLC talk about Currency Exchange, how it effects global shipping, and how to reduce your risks. Visit www.scarbrough-intl.com or email [email protected]
Views: 21 Scarbrough International
Germany after the First World War was going through turbulent times. Tobias Straumann describes how the country went through a brief period of stability in the mid-1920s only to plunge into economic and political crisis in 1931, which eventually led to the rise of Hitler. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/1931-9780198816188 Tobias Straumann is an Associate Professor of Economic History at the University of Zurich. He is a member of the European Historical Economics Society and the academic council of the European Association for Banking and Financial History. Straumann has widely published in the area of twentieth-century European financial and monetary history, and is the author of Fixed Ideas of Money: Small States and Exchange Rate Regimes in Twentieth-Century Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2010), and co-author of The Value of Risk: Swiss Re and the History of Reinsurance (Oxford University Press, 2013). © Oxford University Press
Views: 186 Oxford Academic (Oxford University Press)
Video recorded 5/17/18. Before investing, carefully consider the fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. Please see the prospectus and summary prospectus containing this and other information which can be obtained by calling 1-800-582-6959. Read it carefully before investing. Opinions, estimates, forecasts, and statements of financial market trends that are based on current market conditions constitute our judgment and are subject to change without notice. The views and strategies described may not be suitable for all investors. References to specific securities, asset classes and financial markets are for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to be, and should not be interpreted as, recommendations. As a result of political or economic instability in foreign countries, there can be special risks associated with investing in foreign securities, including fluctuations in currency exchange rates, increased price volatility and difficulty obtaining information. In addition, emerging markets may present additional risk due to potential for greater economic and political instability in less developed countries. Foreign Securities Risk: Risks associated with investing in foreign securities include fluctuations in the exchange rates of foreign currencies that may affect the U.S. dollar value of a security, the possibility of substantial price volatility as a result of political and economic instability in the foreign country, less public information about issuers of securities, different securities regulation, different accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and less liquidity than in U.S. markets. Emerging Markets Risk: Emerging market countries may have relatively unstable governments and economies based on only a few industries, which may cause greater instability. The value of emerging market securities will likely be particularly sensitive to changes in the economies of such countries. These countries are also more likely to experience higher levels of inflation, deflation or currency devaluations, which could hurt their economies and securities markets.
Views: 53 Calamos Investments
Be careful buying an ETF based on its past performance, because the future could be as unpredictable as the weather. Instead, consider integrating ETFs into a diversified portfolio, keeping in mind that asset allocation is the top driver of a portfolio's performance. Find a balance of stock and bond ETFs that's right for you, and spread your money across U.S. and international ETFs to diversify even more. Then look for low-cost ETFs so you're not giving up performance to high expense ratios. Important information **You must buy and sell Vanguard ETF Shares through Vanguard Brokerage Services (we offer them commission-free) or through another broker (which may charge commissions). See the Vanguard Brokerage Services commission and fee schedules at https://vgi.vg/2HJm1xu for limits. Vanguard ETF Shares are not redeemable directly with the issuing fund other than in very large aggregations worth millions of dollars. ETFs are subject to market volatility. When buying or selling an ETF, you will pay or receive the current market price, which may be more or less than net asset value.** All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest. Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss. Fluctuations in the financial markets and other factors may cause declines in the value of your account. There is no guarantee that any particular asset allocation or mix of funds will meet your investment objectives or provide you with a given level of income. Investments in securities issued by non-U.S. companies are subject to risks including country/regional risk and currency risk. These risks can be especially high in emerging markets. Sector ETFs are subject to sector risks and nondiversification risks, which may result in performance fluctuations that are more extreme than fluctuations in the overall stock market. Bond ETFs are subject to interest rate, inflation, and credit risk. © 2018 The Vanguard Group, Inc. All rights reserved. Vanguard Marketing Corporation, Distributor of the Vanguard Funds.
Views: 9112 Vanguard
Risks and Payments in International Business, Export & Import Winning in the Global Marketplace, - A practical hands-on guide to success in international business, with exercises + 100s of real -world examples. This is a short synopsis from the chapter; Risks and Payments in International Business - This video will give you examples of different risks when conducting international business. We will cover topics like political risks, country risks, commercial risks, bank risks, currency risks and much more. The video also exemplifies how to find the appropriate information and ways of minimizing the risks. More information: http://exportpro.com Start the course from the beginning: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLszDsigvRQLnokrl6Lp-7eI7JDUaNaBS- Next video in series, Importing: https://youtu.be/Z4dKY4x-6BA?list=PLszDsigvRQLnokrl6Lp-7eI7JDUaNaBS-
Views: 1336 Export Pro Inc
When everything seemed to be going well, 2018 has gotten very complicated, so much so that Mauricio Macri’s government has been forced to ask for a “bailout” from the International Monetary Fund. What’s happening with the Argentine peso? Is Argentina running the risk of going bankrupt again? What is gradualism? Don’t miss our video today. Check out our Patreon! www.patreon.com/visualpolitik Credits: Casa Rosada Banco Central de la República Argentina And don't forget to visit our friend’s podcast, Reconsider Media: http://www.reconsidermedia.com/
Views: 240250 VisualPolitik EN
Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) confronted a CEO Thursday for pricing the anti-HIV drug Truvada, aka, PrEP, at $8 in Australia but over $1,500 in the U.S. Gilead Sciences Inc. CEO Daniel O'Day has only been on the job since March, and he's already found himself having to defend his company in front of the House Oversight and Reform committee. O’Day faced questioning at a Thursday hearing over the high price of Truvada, a medicine approved to treat HIV and prevent infection. Activists claim that the price prevents at-risk people from accessing the drug and has helped keep infection rates high. Truvada’s annual list price has nearly tripled in the U.S. to more than $20,000 over the past 15 years. It can cost less than $100 per year elsewhere. That’s not an uncommon circumstance. But it feels particularly outrageous given the potential impact on public health, and the fact that government-funded scientists helped develop the medicine – hence the hearing. Gilead is under a particularly bright spotlight for a reason. But the issues raised Thursday over cost and access are rampant throughout the industry. The timing of the hearing was no accident. News broke in April that the government is reviewing patents on Truvada’s preventative use that could entitle taxpayers to millions in royalties. Shortly after that, Gilead announced that it will donate millions of bottles of medicine for at-risk Americans, a move criticized by activists as too little, too late. That was followed by a lawsuit filed Tuesday that accuses Gilead of a variety of unsavory efforts aimed at keeping the prices of its drugs high. “I’m praying that you come in and do not give us the normal rope-a-dope stuff we usually hear about the programs you’ve got and the coupons you have,” Maryland Congressman Elijah Cummings told O’Day in his opening statement. “We want the prices to come down.” That didn’t stop O'Day from pulling out of the standard pharma defense playbook when asked why the company doesn’t just lower its prices. “If we had lowered the prices of our medicines a decade ago, we wouldn’t be sitting here with the innovations that are changing the face of HIV AIDS,” he said. O’Day also repeatedly touted Gilead’s programs that help lower-income people afford its medicines. And yet, only a fraction of at-risk Americans take Truvada in spite of Gilead’s efforts, according to multiple witnesses at the hearing, and most of them are white men in wealthy parts of the country. Price isn’t the only issue. But it’s a significant one; the use of Truvada is higher and the HIV infection rate is much lower in parts of Australia where there’s a generic available and the price is far lower. Assistance programs that cover patient out-of-pocket costs are common, but they aren’t selfless. They are often efforts to drive demand for branded products over cheaper alternatives and to keep prices high. The cost doesn’t just vanish because patients don’t bear it – it falls on the rest of the system. As for Gilead’s recent drug donation, anything that boosts access is great. But giveaways and co-pay coupons are distractions from the fact that drugmakers like Gilead refuse to increase access in the simplest and most effective way possible: making the drug affordable. O’Day isn’t wrong when he says drugmakers need a strong incentive to make risky research gambles. But that’s flimsy justification for industry-wide practices like annual price hikes and elaborate efforts to extend high prices well beyond a drug’s natural patent life, especially when they limit access. And it’s all the more galling considering that Gilead has more cash than it knows what to do with. It has sent $40 billion back to shareholders in the form of dividends and buybacks over the past five years, and has more than $30 billion just sitting around. Its annual adjusted R&D budget is less than $4 billion. Subscribe to our YouTube channel: https://bit.ly/2TwO8Gm TICTOC ON SOCIAL: Follow TicToc on Twitter: https://twitter.com/tictoc Like TicToc on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/tictoc Follow TicToc on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/tictoc Watch all of TicToc’s videos: https://www.tictoc.video/ Listen to TicToc’s podcast: https://apple.co/2D3Vta7 Subscribe to our newsletter: https://bit.ly/2FJ0oQZ TicToc by Bloomberg is global news for the life you lead. We are a 24/7 news network that covers breaking news, politics, technology, business and entertainment stories from around the globe, supported by a network of Bloomberg’s 2,700 journalists across 120 countries.
Views: 29394 TicToc by Bloomberg
Economic risks are strictly linked to returns: they are taken because a profit is expected. Find out more about the topic in this video of the EduPop series, the financial education project of Museo del Risparmio. http://www.museodelrisparmio.it
Views: 2132 Intesa Sanpaolo
uestion 1= Please respond to the following: Analyze the major elements of international trade to determine why there is more risk here than in domestic trade. Describe some of the risks you identified (3) at. Make at least one recommendation for mitigating the risk(s) you have identified. Provide arguments to support your response. Cite your sources. Question 2= Please respond to the following: Analyze the major elements of international trade to determine why there is more risk here than in domestic trade.\u00a0 Describe some of the risks you identified.\u00a0 Make at least one recommendation for mitigating the risk(s) you have identified.\u00a0 Provide arguments to support your response.\u00a0 Cite your sources. The major elements of international trade are balance of payments that is made up of invisibles, visibles, and current accounts for the purpose of recording all financial dealings with foreigners, correcting a deficit, and exchange rates. Balance of payments is used to monitor international monetary transactions for a specific period and tracks the money going in and out of a country. The BOP is divided into current, capital, and financial accounts. The current account captures credits and debits related to the trade of merchandise that are bought, sold, or donated in the form of aid. The capital account consists of monetary flows from debt forgiveness, the transfer of goods, and financial assets by migrants leaving or entering a country, and other fixed assets. The financial account relates to monetary flows on business investments, real estate, bonds, and stocks. Government assets such as foreign reserves, gold, and special drawing rights are also included. Within the elements of international trade, there are country risk, foreign exchange risk, and fraud. The political and economic stability of a country, and exchange controls all play into country risk. If a country experiences civil war or sudden changes in government, they may not keep the terms of trade contracts and
Views: 0 xhngh gfnxgn