Why the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) is used to value commercial banks instead of the traditional Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" There are 3 main reasons why the DCF and the concept of Free Cash Flow (FCF) do not apply to commercial banks: 1. You can't separate operating vs. investing vs. financing activities - the lines are very blurry for a bank, since items like debt are more operationally-related and fund the bank's lending activities. 2. CapEx doesn't represent re-investment in the business, as it does for a normal company - for a bank,"re-investment" means hiring people, doing more lending, etc. 3. Working Capital represents something much different for a bank - the standard definition of Current Assets Excl. Cash Minus Current Liabilities Excl. Debt makes no sense, because for banks that includes tons of investments, securities, other borrowings, etc. so you could see massive swings... What You Do Instead - Use Dividends as a Proxy for Free Cash Flow Why? Because banks are CONSTRAINED by capital requirements - according to the Basel accords (I, II, III), they must maintain a certain "buffer" at all times to cover unexpected losses on their loans... So just like CapEx requirements, Net Income growth, and Working Capital constrain FCF for normal companies, the Tier 1 Capital / Tangible Common Equity / Total Capital requirements constrain dividends for banks. So we'll project a bank's regulatory capital, its asset growth, and its net income, and use those to project its dividends - then, discount, and sum up the dividends and discount and add the NPV of its terminal value. How to Set Up a Dividend Discount Model (DDM) 1. Make assumptions for Total Assets, Asset Growth, targeted Tier 1 (or other) Ratios, Risk-Weighted Assets, Return on Assets (ROA) or Return on Equity (ROE), and Cost of Equity. 2. Next, project Assets and Risk-Weighted Assets. 3. Then, project Net Income based on ROA or ROE. 4. Then, project Shareholders' Equity (AKA Tier 1 Capital) based on targeted capital ratio... 5. And BACK INTO dividends! Different from a normal company's DDM! Set dividends such that the minimum capital ratio is maintained, based on starting Shareholders' Equity and Net Income that year. 6. Flesh out the rest of the model - stats, growth rates, other metrics. 7. Discount and sum up dividends. 8. Calculate, discount, and add Terminal Value so that NPV = NPV of Terminal Value + NPV of All Dividends. 9. Calculate the Implied Share Price and compare to actual Share Price. Is the bank undervalued? Overvalued? What are the clues so far? What Next? Try it with a real company, using its historical financial information. Add more complex / realistic assumptions, based on industry research, channel checks, the bank's own strengths/weaknesses, etc. Add more advanced features - other ways to calculate Terminal Value, more accurate regulatory capital, mid-year discount and/or stub periods, stock issuances / repurchases, multiple growth stages, and so on.
Views: 41398 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
When valuing a company as a going concern there are three main valuation methods used by industry practitioners: (1) DCF analysis, (2) comparable company analysis, and (3) precedent transactions. These are the most common methods of valuation used in investment banking, equity research, private equity, corporate development, mergers & acquisitions (M&A), leveraged buyouts (LBO) and most areas of finance. Click here to learn more about this topic: https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/valuation/valuation-methods/
Views: 19996 Corporate Finance Institute
This CFA Level I video covers concepts related to: • Price Multiples • Multiples Based on Fundamentals • Multiples Based on Comparables • Enterprise Value • Assets Based Models For more updated CFA videos, Please visit www.arifirfanullah.com.
Views: 31952 IFT
Learn the building blocks of a simple one-page discounted cash flow (DCF) model consistent with the best practices you would find in investment banking. If you are preparing for investment banking interviews, know that the DCF is the source of a TON of investment banking interview questions. To download the backup Excel file, go to www.wallstreetprep.com/blog/financial-modeling-quick-lesson-building-a-discounted-cash-flow-dcf-model-part-1/ The DCF modeled here is a simplified version of a fully-integrated DCF model. For a deeper dive into DCF modeling in Excel, please visit www.wallstreetprep.com.
Views: 365384 Wall Street Prep
Learn how Equity Value and Enterprise Value change when a company issues debt, pays off debt, issues equity, and repurchases shares. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" The key point is that regardless of how a company is financed, its Enterprise Value - and Enterprise Value-based multiples - do NOT change. Equity Value, however, may change depending on its share count and any shares it issues or repurchases. So even when a company changes its debt or equity or cash levels, valuation multiples such as EV / EBITDA and EV / Revenue will not change immediately afterward... whereas a multiple such as P / E (Price Per Share / Earnings Per Share, or Equity Value / Net Income) will change if new equity has been issued. It's just like when you buy a house - house is worth $500K regardless of whether you pay with 100% cash or 50% cash and 50% debt, or anything else in between... but depending on how much cash and debt you use, your own EQUITY IN THAT HOUSE will be different. The $500K total value of the house is like the Enterprise Value for a company. And if you contribute $250K of your own cash and take on a $250K mortgage, the $250K you chip in is your "Equity Value" and the $250K mortgage is the "Debt." Over time, your own "Equity Value" in that house will increase and your own "Debt" will decrease as you repay the mortgage, but the $500K total value for the house stays the same as long as the house's intrinsic value remains the same. This example uses Coca-Cola's filings and financial statements - you can find them and try this yourself right here: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/investors/annual-other-reports http://www.coca-colacompany.com/investors/investors-info-quarterly-filings (NOTE: The numbers, of course, will be different if you look at this video at a later date, but the concept remains the same and has always been the same ever since Equity Value and Enterprise Value were invented.) MENTIONED RESOURCES http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/KO-Equity-Value-Enterprise-Value.xlsx
Views: 56315 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
A leveraged buyout (LBO) is the acquisition of a company, division, business, or collection of assets using debt to finance a large portion of the purchase price. The remaining portion of the purchase price is funded with an equity contribution by a financial sponsor. The ability to leverage the relatively small equity investment is important for sponsors to achieve acceptable returns. The use of leverage provides the additional benefit of tax savings realized due to the tax deductibility of interest expense. Questions answered in the video include? - What are private equity firms and how do they invest? - How does leverage impact the equity returns of a sponsor? - What is a leveraged buyout (LBO)? - How does changing the financing mix change overall returns? - What is the internal rate of return (IRR)? - What are the characteristics of a strong LBO candidate? - What are the available sources of LBO financing? For those who are interested in buying the Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl, follow the Amazon link below; https://www.amazon.ca/Investment-Banking-Valuation-Leveraged-Acquisitions/dp/1118656210 If you have any other questions, please comment below. If you enjoyed the video and found it helpful, please like and subscribe to FinanceKid for more videos soon! For those who may be interested in finance and investing, I suggest you check out my Seeking Alpha profile where I write about the market and different investment opportunities. I conduct a full analysis on companies and countries while also commenting on relevant news stories. http://seekingalpha.com/author/robert-bezede/articles#regular_articles
Views: 4990 FinanceKid
In this Price to Book Value Ratio - Interpretation and Derivation lesson, you’ll learn about the relationship between Price to Book Value (P/BV), Return on Equity (ROE), and Cost of Equity (Ke) for commercial banks, including how you can derive a formula for P/BV that links these key variables, plus Net Income Growth, together. You’ll also learn how you can use this information to determine if a bank might be overvalued or undervalued. http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" Table of Contents: 3:51 How and Why Valuation Multiples are “Shorthand” for a DCF Valuation 7:23 Proof of the Relationship Between P/BV, ROE, and Cost of Equity 13:40 How to Remove the “Payout Ratio” Term from the P/BV Formula 17:09 The Meaning of the P/BV Multiple 20:47 Recap and Summary Lesson Outline: Here’s a question that came in the other day: “I see that in the public comps of your Bank Valuation model, Citi is trading below a 1x P / TBV (Price to Tangible Book Value) multiple. Is the market saying that Citi’s shares are worth less than the liquidation value of the company? How does that make sense?” “Also, what does it mean if the bank were trading at a higher P / TBV or P / BV multiple, either over 1x or at a higher number than the comparables?” The ANSWER is that P / BV (or P / TBV etc.) multiples represent *shorthand* for the valuation of commercial banks. They’re all about *expected* returns vs. *targeted* returns: If P / BV is above 1x, it means the ROE of a bank exceeds its Cost of Equity. If P / BV equals 1x, it means that ROE equals Cost of Equity. If P / BV is below 1x, it means that ROE is below Cost of Equity. Multiples: Shorthand for a DCF or Dividend Discount Model Valuation In a DCF, if you know a company’s Final Year FCF, Terminal FCF Growth Rate, and the Discount Rate (WACC), you can figure out its *implied* EBIT or EBITDA multiple. In other words, if you make those assumptions, the multiple tells you how much you’d be willing to pay for the company to earn the return you’re targeting. For commercial banks, those metrics are meaningless because interest income is a critical component of revenue and you can’t separate operating and non-operating assets and liabilities. So instead, you rely on Dividends, Net Income Growth, and Cost of Equity for valuation, and they are all linked to the P / BV multiple. Specifically, the Terminal Equity Value for a commercial bank = Dividends One Year After the Final Year / (Discount Rate – Net Income Growth Rate) What Drives Dividends? The key factors influencing Dividends are the bank’s Book Value, its Return on Equity (ROE), its Payout Ratio, and its Net Income Growth Rate… a bank generates Net Income from its Book Value and ROE, and then it issues a certain amount in the form of Dividends. And then it grows its Net Income at a certain rate in the next year. So you can rewrite this formula as: Implied Equity Value = BV * ROE * Payout Ratio * (1 + NI Growth Rate) / (Cost of Equity – NI Growth Rate) Since P / BV = Equity Value / Book Value, you can rewrite that as: P / BV = ROE * Payout Ratio * (1 + NI Growth Rate) / (Cost of Equity – NI Growth Rate) Then, you can make ROE correspond to the bank’s Net Income in the NEXT period instead, so it becomes: P / BV = Next Year ROE * Payout Ratio / (Cost of Equity – NI Growth Rate) Getting Rid of the Payout Ratio Term A bank has two options for its Net Income: it can pay it out in the form of Dividends, or hold onto it and actually get more Net Income for growth purposes. You can reflect this relationship as: Net Income Growth = (1 – Payout Ratio) * ROE NI Growth = ROE – ROE * Payout Ratio NI Growth – ROE = – ROE * Payout Ratio ROE – NI Growth = ROE * Payout Ratio And then you can plug in this term to the equation: P / BV = ROE * Payout Ratio / (Cost of Equity – NI Growth Rate) P / BV = (ROE – NI Growth Rate) / (Cost of Equity – NI Growth Rate) And this tells you the key relationship between all these terms. Real-Life Uses and Interpretation So are Citi’s shares worth less than its liquidation value? Technically, yes… but it might be better to think of it as: “The market believes Citi’s ROE will be less than its Cost of Equity, and therefore its Net Assets are worth less than their current Balance Sheet values.” If a bank’s ROE and P / BV are both high, that doesn’t tell you much; same if they are both low. You find the interesting opportunities and (potentially) incorrectly valued banks when the ROE is low but the P / BV multiple is high, or when the ROE is high but the P / BV multiple is low. RESOURCES: http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/Price-to-Book-Value-Ratio-Interpretation.pdf
Views: 13780 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
Valuing a company is more art than science. Tim Bennett explains why and introduces three ways potential investors can get started. Related links… • How to value a company using discounted cash flow (DCF) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfcRUzKZZE8 • How to value a company using net assets - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rV68zoBKTJE • What is a balance sheet? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DuKEcxVplnY MoneyWeek videos are designed to help you become a better investor, and to give you a better understanding of the markets. They’re aimed at both beginners and more experienced investors. In all our videos we explain things in an easy-to-understand way. Some videos are about important ideas and concepts. Others are about investment stories and themes in the news. The emphasis is on clarity and brevity. We don’t want to waste your time with a 20-minute video that could easily be so much shorter.
Views: 260586 MoneyWeek
We explain the difference between enterprise value (firm value) and equity value, as well as the different valuation multiples used for each. This is part of our FREE corporate finance course: https://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/courses/introduction-to-corporate-finance -- FREE COURSES & CERTIFICATES -- Enroll in our FREE online courses and earn industry-recognized certificates to advance your career: ► Introduction to Corporate Finance: https://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/courses/introduction-to-corporate-finance ► Excel Crash Course: https://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/courses/free-excel-crash-course-for-finance ► Accounting Fundamentals: https://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/courses/learn-accounting-fundamentals-corporate-finance ► Reading Financial Statements: https://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/courses/learn-to-read-financial-statements-free-course ► Fixed Income Fundamentals: https://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/courses/introduction-to-fixed-income -- ABOUT CORPORATE FINANCE INSTITUTE -- CFI is a leading global provider of online financial modeling and valuation courses for financial analysts. Our programs and certifications have been delivered to thousands of individuals at the top universities, investment banks, accounting firms and operating companies in the world. By taking our courses you can expect to learn industry-leading best practices from professional Wall Street trainers. Our courses are extremely practical with step-by-step instructions to help you become a first class financial analyst. Explore CFI courses: https://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/collections -- JOIN US ON SOCIAL MEDIA -- LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/corporate-finance-institute-cfi- Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/corporatefinanceinstitute.cfi Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/corporatefinanceinstitute Google+: https://plus.google.com/+Corporatefinanceinstitute-CFI YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/c/Corporatefinanceinstitute-CFI
Views: 16424 Corporate Finance Institute
In this tutorial, you'll learn what goes into an equity research report, including how it differs from a stock pitch in terms of structure and argument, the main sections of the reports, and how you might write your own reports. http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/equity-research-report/ Table of Contents: 1:43 Part 1: Stock Pitches vs. Equity Research Reports 6:00 Part 2: The 4 Main Differences in Research Reports 12:46 Part 3: Sample Reports and the Typical Sections 20:53 Recap and Summary Part 1: Stock Pitches vs. Equity Research Reports The main difference is that equity research reports are like "watered-down" stock pitches: you still recommend for or against investment in a public company, but your views are weaker, "Sell" recommendations are rare, and you spend a lot more time describing the company and its operations and financials. By contrast, in hedge fund stock pitches you take more extreme views and spend more time explaining how your views differ from those of the market as a whole. Part 2: The 4 Main Differences in Research Reports 1) There's More Emphasis on Recent Results and Announcements 2) Far-Outside-the-Mainstream Views Are Less Common 3) Research Reports Give "Target Prices" Rather Than Target Price Ranges 4) The Investment Thesis, Catalysts, and Risk Factors Are "Looser" Part 3: Sample Reports and the Typical Sections The main sections of a report are as follows: Page 1: Update, Rating, Price Target, and Recent Results The first page of an "Update" report states the bank's recommendation (Buy, Hold, or Sell, sometimes with slightly different terminology), and gives recent updates on the company. A specific "target price" must be based on specific multiples and specific assumptions in a DCF or DDM. So with Jazz, we explain that the $170.00 target is based on 20.7x and 15.3x EV/EBITDA multiples for the comps, and a discount rate of 8.07% and Terminal FCF growth rate of 0.3% in the DCF. Next: Operations and Financial Summary Next, you'll see a section with lots of graphs and charts detailing the company's financial performance, market share, and important metrics and ratios. For a pharmaceutical company like Jazz, you might see revenue by product, pricing and # of patients per product per year, and EBITDA margins. For a commercial bank like Shawbrook, you might see loan growth, interest rates, interest income and net income, and regulatory capital figures such as the Common Equity Tier 1 (CET 1) and Tangible Common Equity (TCE) ratios: This section of the report explains how the research analyst/associate forecast the company's performance and came up with the numbers used in the valuation. Valuation The valuation section is the one that's most similar in a research report and a stock pitch. In both fields, you explain how you arrived at the company's implied value, which usually involves pasting in a DCF or DDM analysis and comparable companies and transactions. The methodologies are the same, but the assumptions might differ substantially. In research, you're also more likely to point to specific multiples, such as the 75th percentile EV/EBITDA multiple, and explain why they are the most meaningful ones. Investment Thesis, Catalysts, and Risks This section is short, and it is more of an afterthought than anything else. We do give reasons for why these companies might be mispriced, but the reasoning isn't that detailed and it's not linked to specific share prices. Banks present Investment Risks mostly so they can say, "Well, we warned you there were risks and that our recommendation might be wrong." http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/equity-research-report/
Views: 49416 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
In this tutorial, you'll learn how to research, structure, and present an oil & gas stock pitch. More at http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/oil-gas-stock-pitch/ You'll also learn how it's different from investment recommendations and stock pitches in other industries. We'll use Ultra Petroleum [UPL] as the example company, and present a SHORT recommendation based on a detailed analysis of their filings, investor presentations, and earnings call transcripts, along with a complex Net Asset Value (NAV) Model, based on individual wells drilled in different regions. Table of Contents: 1:19 The Structure of an Oil & Gas Stock Pitch 3:15 Investment Thesis 6:19 Catalysts 10:42 Valuation 13:38 Risk Factors 15:51 Why This Recommendation Was Wrong 19:25 Recap and Summary Investment Thesis Why is the company mis-priced? How does the market view it, and why is everyone else wrong? Here, we cite 3 reasons: 1. The company has overstated its average EUR per well in some regions, which means its reserves may be overstated or otherwise inaccurate. 2. Cutting capital expenditures (D&C Costs) and operating expenses (LOE) over time makes less of an impact on the company's implied value than they claim it does - being a low-cost producer is nice, but even substantial reductions over time don't boost the value by all that much. 3. Drilling in Pennsylvania may be stopped or reduced due to the company's JV partners, and the market hasn't yet factored in the chances of that happening and the impact on the company's implied value. Catalysts A few examples of potential catalysts: Oil & Gas-Specific: Reserve Reports / Drill Results, Well Drilling Schedules / Expanded or Reduced Drilling, Produce / No Produce Decisions, New Technology Deployment to reduce D&C Costs, Improved Well Spacing, Pipeline Developments, Hedging Contract Changes More Generic: Geographic Expansion, Acquisitions or Divestitures, Earnings Announcements, Competitors' Activities, Financing Activities For UPL, we use these 3 catalysts: 1. The close of the $650 million Uinta Basin acquisition. 2. The release of new reserve reports from the company's existing regions. 3. The possible halt to drilling in the Marcellus shale of Pennsylvania. For each one, we show the implied per share impact on the company based on the NAV model. Valuation We use the NAV model here, lay out our assumptions in the beginning, and then mostly focus on the OUTPUT of the model to avoid pasting in sheets and sheets of Excel. With the NAV Model, you split the company into existing production (PDP and PDNP) and new production (PUD, PROB, and POSS), make "high-level" estimates for the existing production, and assume a decline rate over time. For the others, assume that a certain # of new wells are drilled each year, assume that they start producing at a certain level and then decline to 0 over time, and then project the revenue, expenses, CapEx, and cash flow for each region and reserve type... Finally, you sum up everything at the end. The main point is to show that the assumption we're MOST uncertain of - EUR per well - makes a huge difference on the valuation... ...While other assumptions, such as the D&C Costs and LOE per well, make a smaller difference and so it doesn't matter much even if the company can reduce those costs. Risk Factors You can "reverse" the catalysts and ask, "What happens if this catalyst does NOT happen, or what if the results are different than expected?" Our top risk factors are: 1. The $650 million Uinta Basin acquisition fails to close. 2. Even if the acquisition does close, initial drilling reports might be positive and indicate higher-than-expected reserve levels. 3. Full drilling continues in the Marcellus shale as natural gas prices recover. 4. The company's improved well spacing pilots prove successful, and it is able to increase its effective EUR per well. So the first 3 are "reversals" of the catalysts, and we therefore also assess the implied per share impact from them. The last risk factor is more of an "X Factor" type of item that might cause the company's reserves to jump up dramatically if executed well. Why This Recommendation Was Wrong First off, gas prices spiked up to very high levels ($7.00 - $8.00) due to an unusually cold winter. That killed the "Short" recommendation since all oil & gas companies become more valuable when commodity prices spike up. Next, the company beat revenue and EPS consensus estimates twice in the past 6-7 months after this pitch; equity research analysts also upgraded their ratings on the stock. Finally, the stock had already fallen substantially in the past 2-3 years before this... so our timing wasn't great. How to Avoid Disaster: We recommended setting a buy-stop order at $23.00 - $24.00 / share to limit our losses. That would have limited our losses to ~25%.
Views: 21946 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
A 15-minute, 3-step guide to analyzing bank stocks. Imagine owning Amazon.com (up over an insane 4,000% since 2001) when Internet sales rendered big-box retailers obsolete... Now an industry 99% of us use daily is set to implode... And 3 established companies are positioned to take advantage. Click http://bit.ly/1zQXjzy for a stunning presentation. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Subscribe to The Motley Fool's YouTube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/TheMotleyFool Or, follow our Google+ page: https://plus.google.com/+MotleyFool/posts Inside The Motley Fool: Check out our Culture Blog! http://culture.fool.com Join our Facebook community: https://www.facebook.com/themotleyfool Follow The Motley Fool on Twitter: https://twitter.com/themotleyfool
Views: 6502 The Motley Fool
On September 17, 2013, Neng Wang, Chong Khoon Lin Professor of Real Estate at Columbia Business School, presented Valuing Private Equity. The presentation was part of the Program for Financial Studies' No Free Lunch Seminar Series. The Program for Financial Studies' No Free Lunch Seminar Series provides broader community access to Columbia Business School faculty research. At each seminar, attended by invited MBA and PhD students, faculty members introduce their current research within an informal lunch setting. Learn more at http://www8.gsb.columbia.edu/financialstudies/
Views: 18994 Columbia Business School
Professor David Hillier, University of Strathclyde; Short videos for students of my Finance Textbooks, Corporate Finance and Fundamentals of Corporate Finance Website: www.david-hillier.com Check out my Amazon page: https://www.amazon.co.uk/s/ref=dp_byline_sr_book_1?ie=UTF8&text=David+Hillier&search-alias=books-uk&field-author=David+Hillier&sort=relevancerank
Views: 2881 David Hillier
In this tutorial, you'll learn how private companies are valued differently from public companies, including differences in the financial statements, the public comps, the precedent transactions, and the DCF analysis and WACC. Get all the files and the textual description and explanation here: http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/private-company-valuation/ Table of Contents: 1:29 The Three Types of Private Companies and the Main Differences 6:22 Accounting and 3-Statement Differences 12:04 Valuation Differences 16:14 DCF and WACC Differences 21:09 Recap and Summary The Three Type of Private Companies To master this topic, you need to understand that "private companies" are very different, even though they're in the same basic category. There are three main types worth analyzing: Money Businesses: These are true small businesses, owned by families or individuals, with no aspirations of becoming huge. They are often heavily dependent on one person or several individuals. Examples include restaurants, law firms, and even this BIWS/M&I business. Meth Businesses: These are venture-backed startups aiming to disrupt big markets and eventually become huge companies. Examples include Kakao, WhatsApp, Instagram, and Tumblr – all before they were acquired. Empire Businesses: These are large companies with management teams and Boards of Directors; they could be public but have chosen not to be. Examples include Ikea, Cargill, SAS, and Koch Industries. You see the most differences with Money Businesses and much smaller differences with the other two categories. The main differences have to do with accounting and the three financial statements, valuation, and the DCF analysis. Accounting and 3-Statement Differences Key adjustments might include "normalizing" the company's financial statements to make them compliant with US GAAP or IFRS, classifying the owner's dividends as a compensation expense on the Income Statement, removing intermingled personal expenses, and adjusting the tax rate in future periods. These points should NOT be issues with Meth Businesses (startups) or Empire Businesses (large private companies) unless the company is another Enron. Valuation Differences The valuation of a private company depends heavily on its purpose: are you valuing the company right before an IPO? Or evaluating it for an acquisition by an individual or private/public buyer? These companies might be worth very different amounts to different parties – they *should* be worth the most in IPO scenarios because private companies gain a larger, diverse shareholder base like that. You'll almost always apply an "illiquidity discount" or "private company discount" to the multiples from the public comps; a 10x EBITDA multiple is great, but it doesn't hold up so well if the comps have $500 million in revenue and your company has $500,000 in revenue. This discount might range from 10% to 30% or more, depending on the size and scale of the company you're valuing. Precedent Transactions tend to be more similar, and you don't apply the same type of huge discount there for larger private companies. You may see more "creative" metrics used, such as Enterprise Value / Monthly Active Users, especially for private mobile/gaming/social companies. DCF and WACC Differences The biggest problems here are the Discount Rate and the Terminal Value. The Discount Rate has to be higher for private companies, but you can't calculate it in the traditional way because private companies don't have Betas or Market Caps. Instead, you often use the industry-average capital structure or average from the comparables to determine the appropriate percentages, and then calculate Beta, Cost of Equity, and WACC based on that. There are other approaches as well – use the firm's optimal capital structure, create a giant circular reference, or use earnings volatility or dividend growth rates – but this is the most realistic one. You use this approach for all private companies because they all have the same problem (no Market Cap or Beta). You'll also have to discount the Terminal Value, but this is mostly an issue for Money Businesses because of their dependency on the owner and key individuals. You could heavily discount the Terminal Value, use the company's future Liquidation Value AS the Terminal Value, or assume the company stops operating in the future and skip Terminal Value entirely. Regardless of which one you use, Terminal Value will be substantially lower for this type of company. The result is that the valuation will be MOST different for a Money Business, with smaller, but still possibly substantial, differences for Meth Businesses and Empire Businesses. http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/private-company-valuation/
Views: 85154 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
In this Enterprise Value lesson we take a look at the rules of thumb to figure out what should be added or subtracted when you calculate it. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" This also covers a short case study based on Vivendi (a leading media/telecom conglomerate based in France), Everyone knows the definition of Enterprise Value: Take Equity Value, add Debt and Preferred Stock (and others), and subtract Cash... But WHY do you do any of that? Enterprise Value represents the value of the company's CORE BUSINESS OPERATIONS to ALL THE INVESTORS in the company - equity, debt, preferred stock, etc. So focus on OPERATIONAL ITEMS and ALL INVESTORS when thinking about what to include... and what to exclude! Table of Contents: 1:19 What Enterprise Value Means 2:10 The 3 Key Rules of Thumb 5:15 Walk-Through of Vivendi's Assets and What to Subtract 11:08 How to Determine the Proper Treatment for Certain Assets 12:33 Excel Calculations for Assets Subtracted 13:30 Walk-Through of Vivendi's Liabilities & Equity and What to Add 15:14 How to Determine the Proper Treatment for Certain Liabilities 17:04 Excel Calculations for Liabilities Added 18:57 The Equity Section and Noncontrolling Interests 19:45 Recap and Summary The Three Rules of Thumb: 1. Is this item a *long-term funding source* for the company? In other words, will the funds we raise from this item help fund our business for years to come? If so, you should ADD this item when calculating Enterprise Value! Examples: Debt, Preferred Stock, Noncontrolling Interests (Minority Interests), Capital Leases, Unfunded Pension Obligations, Restructuring/Environmental Liabilities... 2. Will this item cost an acquirer of the company something extra when they go to buy it? And is it NOT something that will be repaid out of the company's normal operating cash flows (e.g., Accounts Payable)? If so, ADD it when calculating Enterprise Value! Examples: Debt, Preferred Stock. 3. Is this item NOT an operating asset? In other words, could the company continue to operate even WITHOUT this particular asset and be fine? If so, SUBTRACT it when calculating Enterprise Value! (These items often "save acquirers money" when buying the company.) Examples: Cash, Liquid Investments, Net Operating Losses, Assets from Discontinued Operations or Assets Held for Sale... How Does Each Item In Our Analysis Satisfy This Criteria? ITEMS THAT YOU SUBTRACT: Cash - Non-operating asset, the company doesn't "need" it to run its business beyond a certain low, minimum level. Liquid Investments - Also non-operating, the company has no need to invest in the stock market if it sells normal products/services. Equity Investments - Non-operating, not recorded in this company's revenue/expenses, doesn't "need" it to run the business. Other Non-Core Assets - Typically items that will be sold off or discontinued soon, so they're the very definition of "non-operating." NOLs - Also non-operating since long-term tax savings from these are not required to run the business. ITEMS THAT YOU ADD: Debt - Long-term funding source, and an acquirer has to repay it. Preferred Stock - Long-term funding source, and an acquirer has to repay it. Noncontrolling Interests - Long-term funding source, but this one's mostly for *comparability*... the company has recorded 100% of revenue and expenses from this company, so we want to capture 100% of its value as well (see our dedicated lesson on this one). Unfunded Pension Obligations - They're a long-term funding source! "Work for us now, we'll pay you a bit less, but we'll take care of you when you retire! Really!" To the company, very much like super-long-term debt.... but owed to employees, not outside investors. Plus, an acquirer has to pay for these somehow... Capital Leases - Also a long-term funding source, sort of like debt used to fund PP&E... these leases are used to fund operations and must be repaid. Restructuring & Legal Liabilities - Increases the cost to an acquirer, and they are also "long-term funding" of a sort - "Instead of paying for these expenses right now, we'll take care of them far into the future and reflect that liability." The Bottom-Line The Enterprise Value calculation is always somewhat subjective, and you'll see it done different ways. Everyone agrees on certain items (Cash, Debt, Preferred Stock), but the treatment of others varies by group, firm, industry, etc. As long as you can justify and explain how you calculated it, you'll be fine - even if someone else wants to change it later. To do that, keep in mind the 3 key rules of thumb above. Further Resources http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/106-07-VIV-Equity-Value-Enterprise-Value.xlsx http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/106-07-VIV-Annual-Financial-Statements-Notes.pdf
Views: 36241 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
Wall St. Training Self-Study Instructor, Hamilton Lin, CFA reviews the basic valuation methodologies utilized by investment bankers and professionals to value companies, ranging from trading comps to deal comps to DCF to break-up analysis and other metrics. For more information of the video courses previewed here, go to: http://www.wstselfstudy.com/modules.html Over 80 hours of online, interactive Self-Study Videos! ***YOUTUBE VISITORS ONLY*** 10% off any online course, use Discount code: youtube http://www.wstselfstudy.com Wall St. Training Self-Study provides online, video-based, self-study financial modeling training solutions to Wall Street. Our interactive course modules are Excel-based and specialize in advanced and complex financial modeling, valuation modeling, investment banking, mergers & acquisitions and leveraged buyout training topics. Enhance your skills and master the content required by Wall Street investment banks, M&A, research, asset management, credit, and private equity firms.
Views: 54464 wstss
In this tutorial, you’ll learn what an “IPO valuation” really means, how to model an initial public offering (IPO) transaction, and what an IPO model tells you about the company and its possible valuation multiples before and after going public. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" Table of Contents: 4:17 The Rationale and Assumptions Behind an IPO 7:47 Pricing vs. Trading Equity Value in an IPO 12:38 Primary vs. Secondary Shares and the Greenshoe or Overallotment Provision 16:10 Deal Size & Net Proceeds to Issuer 19:31 Implied Valuation Multiples 21:08 Alternate IPO Model Driven by Offering Price per Share and Shares Sold/Issued 24:05 Recap and Summary Lesson Outline: We get a lot of questions about "IPO valuation" or "IPO modeling," but the truth is that it’s really simple because you don't, in fact, "value" a company in an IPO. Instead, you simply value a company and then decide how its valuation might be different in an IPO (e.g., no private company discount). Step 1: Assumptions & Setup You almost always start an IPO model with an idea of how much in funding the company wants to raise, and the multiples it may be valued at (based on public comps). The multiples used vary by industry, but 1-year forward P / E multiples are very common (e.g., go to the next full fiscal year and assume a multiple for that projected full-year figure). Here, we’d pick forward multiples from similar, profitable social networking / mobile messaging companies (not covered in this tutorial in the interest of time). Amount of Capital to Raise: Very discretionary and it comes down to the company's plans, how many existing shareholders want to sell, whether it's PE or VC-backed, etc. This is often set to 20-40% of a company's value; common to sell ~1/4 or ~1/3 of the company in a public offering, though that also varies. Step 2: Trading vs. Pricing and the Pricing Discount You apply the assumed multiple to the company's relevant metric, so Forward Net Income in this case, which gets you the "Post-Money Equity Value @ Trading." This is what the company's market cap should be after it has raised the capital and is trading on the stock market. So we can then calculate the Post-Money Equity Value at Trading (the market rate) vs. Pricing (the discounted rate that institutional investors get). And then calculate the Implied Offering Price per Share based on this - take this value, subtract the funds raised, and divide by the company's current share count. Step 3: Determining the Primary vs. Secondary Shares and the "Greenshoe" (Overallotment) Provision "Primary Shares" are newly created shares that represent actual capital being raised in the deal - this capital then goes to the company in the form of cash. "Secondary Shares" represent existing investors selling their stakes to new investors (usually large institutions like Fidelity). No capital is raised here. Formulas: Always determine the Primary Shares first, based on the Post-Money Equity Value @ Pricing and/or the amount of capital raised… and then figure out the Secondary Shares in relation to that. Have to also figure out split between "Base Offering" and "Greenshoe" - "Greenshoe" is an option to issue even more shares if demand is strong enough. Used for cases where the company wants to keep the same offering price, but simply raise more capital if more investors are interested. Very commonly set to ~15% in offerings in developed markets. Step 4: Net Proceeds to Issuer Look at Total Offering Size first (Primary + Secondary + Overallotment) and then subtract out fees. Underwriting Discount: Banks used to, and sometimes still do, buy a portion of the company's stock as "insurance" in case the company can't sell it to anyone else… so this is supposed to compensate them for the risk of holding the stock temporarily, in case it can't find any buyers. Bigger deal = lower fee % in most cases. % Company Sold: Based on Primary Proceeds and Post-Money Equity Value @ Pricing - how much the company sold of itself just before it started trading publicly. Step 5: Valuation Multiples We move from Equity Value to Enterprise Value as we normally do… but we must factor in the cash raised in the IPO now! Equity Value implicitly reflects this cash, so it must be subtracted when calculating the new Enterprise Value. Would have to compare these multiples to those of the public comps to decide whether or not they look reasonable. RESOURCES: http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/107-09-IPO-Valuation-Model.xlsx http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/107-09-IPO-Valuation-Model.pdf
Views: 49028 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
In this WACC and Cost of Equity tutorial, you'll learn how changes to assumptions in a DCF impact variables like the Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn about WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital) - and why it is not always so straightforward to answer these questions in interviews. Table of Contents: 2:22 Why Everything is Interrelated 4:22 Summary of Factors That Impact a DCF 6:37 Changes to Debt Percentages in the Capital Structure 11:38 The Risk-Free Rate, Equity Risk Premium, and Beta 12:49 The Tax Rate 14:55 Recap and Summary Why Do WACC, the Cost of Equity, and the Cost of Debt Matter? This is a VERY common interview question: "If a company goes from 10% debt to 30% debt, does its WACC increase or decrease?" "What if the Risk-Free Rate changes? How is everything else impacted?" "What if the company is bigger / smaller?" Plus, you need to use these concepts on the job all the time when valuing companies… these "costs" represent your opportunity cost from investing in a specific company, and you use them to evaluate that company's cash flows and determine how much the company is worth to you. EX: If you can get a 10% yield by investing in other, similar companies in this market, you'd evaluate this company's cash flows against that 10% "discount rate"… …and if this company's debt, tax rate, or overall size changes, you better know how the discount rate also changes! It could easily change the company's value to you, the investor. The Most Important Concept… Everything is interrelated - in other words, more debt will impact BOTH the equity AND the debt investors! Why? Because additional leverage makes the company riskier for everyone involved. The chance of bankruptcy is higher, so the "cost" even to the equity investors increases. AND: Other variables like the Risk-Free Rate will end up impacting everything, including Cost of Equity and Cost of Debt, because both of them are tied to overall interest rates on "safe" government bonds. Tricky: Some changes only make an impact when a company actually has debt (changes to the tax rate), and you can't always predict how the value derived from a DCF will change in response to this. Changes to the DCF Analysis and the Impact on Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt, WACC, and Implied Value: Smaller Company: Cost of Debt, Equity, and WACC are all higher. Bigger Company: Cost of Debt, Equity, and WACC are all lower. * Assuming the same capital structure percentages - if the capital structure is NOT the same, this could go either way. Emerging Market: Cost of Debt, Equity, and WACC are all higher. No Debt to Some Debt: Cost of Equity and Cost of Debt are higher. WACC is lower at first, but eventually higher. Some Debt to No Debt: Cost of Equity and Cost of Debt are lower. It's impossible to say how WACC changes because it depends on where you are in the "U-shaped curve" - if you're above the debt % that minimizes WACC, WACC will decrease. Otherwise, if you're at that minimum or below it, WACC will increase. Higher Risk-Free Rate: Cost of Equity, Debt, and WACC are all higher; they're all lower with a lower Risk-Free Rate. Higher Equity Risk Premium and Higher Beta: Cost of Equity is higher, and so is WACC; Cost of Debt doesn't change in a predictable way in response to these. When these are lower, Cost of Equity and WACC are both lower. Higher Tax Rate: Cost of Equity, Debt, and WACC are all lower; they're higher when the tax rate is lower. ** Assumes the company has debt - if it does not, taxes don't make an impact because there is no tax benefit to interest paid on debt.
Views: 114448 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
Here's a quick overview on Valuation. We also construct an entire discounted cash flow analysis on WalMart in conjunction with my book Financial Modeling and Valuation: A Practical Guide to Investment Banking and Private Equity http://www.amazon.com/Financial-Modeling-Valuation-Practical-Investment/dp/1118558766/ref=sr_1_8?ie=UTF8&qid=1422553204&sr=8-8&keywords=valuation
Views: 87466 Paul Pignataro
▓▓▓▓░░░░───CONTRIBUTION ───░░░▓▓▓▓ If you like this video and wish to support this kauserwise channel, please contribute via, * Paytm a/c : 7401428918 * Paypal a/c : www.paypal.me/kauserwisetutorial [Every contribution is helpful] Thanks & All the Best!!! ─────────────────────────── Valuation of Shares, Net asset method, Yield method, Fair value method in corporate accounting tutorial. To watch more tutorials pls visit: www.youtube.com/c/kauserwise * Financial Accounts * Corporate accounts * Cost and Management accounts * Operations Research Playlists: For Financial accounting - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLabr9RWfBcnojfVAucCUHGmcAay_1ov46 For Cost and Management accounting - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLabr9RWfBcnpgUjlVR-znIRMFVF0A_aaA For Corporate accounting - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLabr9RWfBcnorJc6lonRWP4b39sZgUEhx For Operations Research - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLabr9RWfBcnoLyXr4Y7MzmHSu3bDjLvhu
Views: 242847 Kauser Wise
Jon Taylor of Stanton Park Advisors (www.stantonparkllc.com) explains how to use a leverage buyout (LBO) model to value a business. The LBO model template can be downloaded at www.stantonparkllc.com in the blog section.
Views: 36227 Jon Taylor
The discount cash flow analysis (DCF) is a fundamental valuation methodology broadly used by investment bankers, corporate officers, and other finance professionals. It is based on the principal that the value of a company can be derived from the PV of its projected free cash flow (FCF). While many videos cover the actual framework and how to build the excel model, the assumptions and thinking behind the model are often left to more “real world” examples. This is that example! Chapter 3 covered topics like; - How do you project revenues for a DCF model? - How many years do you project cashflows for? - What is the exit multiple method? - What is the perpetuity growth method? - How do you project EBITDA for a DCF model? - How do you project EBIT for a DCF model? - How do you project the NWC for a DCF model? - What is the mid-year convention? - How do you calculate unlevered free cash flow? For those who are interested in buying the Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl, follow the Amazon link below; https://www.amazon.ca/Investment-Banking-Valuation-Leveraged-Acquisitions/dp/1118656210 If you have any other questions, please comment below. If you enjoyed the video and found it helpful, please like and subscribe to FinanceKid for more videos soon! For those who may be interested in finance and investing, I suggest you check out my Seeking Alpha profile where I write about the market and different investment opportunities. I conduct a full analysis on companies and countries while also commenting on relevant news stories. http://seekingalpha.com/author/robert-bezede/articles#regular_articles Videos referenced; Estimating Cost of Debt For WACC: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CSkPlxEe-dY Estimating Cost Of Equity For WACC: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZigyWoDAMrE Projecting NWC; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2E1Hca2dVbI Why Is Your DCF Model Incorrect? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ByyK0AMuLxc
Views: 8199 FinanceKid
You'll learn what "Free Cash Flow" (FCF) means, why it's such an important metric when analyzing and valuing companies. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn how to interpret positive vs. negative FCF, and what different numbers over time mean -- using a comparison between Wal-Mart, Amazon, and Salesforce as our example. Table of Contents: 0:54 What Free Cash Flow (FCF) is and Why It's Important 2:26 What Positive FCF Tells You, and What to Do With It 3:56 What Negative FCF Tells You, and What to Do With It 4:38 Why You Exclude Most Investing and Financing Activities in the FCF Calculation 7:55 How to Use and Interpret FCF When Analyzing Companies 11:58 Wal-Mart vs. Amazon vs. Salesforce: Free Cash Flow Across Sectors 19:33 Recap and Summary What is Free Cash Flow? Normally it's defined as Cash Flow from Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Tells you the company's DISCRETIONARY cash flow - after paying for expenses and working capital requirements like inventory and capital expenditures, how much cash flow can it put to use for other purposes? If the company generates a lot of Free Cash Flow, it has many options: hire more employees, spend more on working capital, invest in CapEx, invest in other securities, repay debt, issue dividends or repurchase shares, or even acquire other companies. If FCF is negative, you need to dig in and see if it's a one-time issue or recurring problem, and then figure out why: Are sales declining? Are expenses too high? Is the company spending too much on CapEx? If FCF is consistently negative, the company might have to raise debt or equity eventually, or it might have to restructure itself or cut costs in some other way. Why Do You Exclude Most Investing and Financing Activities Other Than CapEx? Because all other activities are, for the most part, "optional" and non-recurring. A normal company does not NEED to buy stocks or issue dividends or repurchase shares... those are all optional uses of cash. All it NEEDS to do to keep its business running is sell products to customers, pay for expenses, and keep investing in longer-term assets such as buildings and equipment (PP&E). Debt repayment and interest expense are "borderline" because some variations of Free Cash Flow will include them, others will exclude them, and some will include interest expense but not debt principal repayment. How Do You Use Free Cash Flow? It's used in a DCF (or at least, a variation of it) to value a company; it's also used in a leveraged buyout (LBO) model to determine how much debt a company can repay. And you can calculate it on a standalone basis for use when comparing different companies. The key is to DIG IN and see why Free Cash Flow is changing the way it is - Organic sales growth? Artificial cost-cutting? Accounting gimmicks? Different working capital policies? IDEALLY, FCF will be increasing because of higher units sales and/or higher market share, and/or higher margins due to economies of scale. Less Good: FCF is growing due to cost-cutting, CapEx slashing, or FCF is growing in spite of falling sales and profits... because of a company playing games with Working Capital, non-core activities, or CapEx spending. Wal-Mart vs. Amazon vs. Salesforce Comparison Main takeaway here is that Wal-Mart's FCF is all over the place, but Cash Flow from Operations is MOSTLY growing, so that appears to be driven by the also growing organic sales. The company is doing some odd things with CapEx and Working Capital, which led to fluctuations in FCF - not exactly "bad" or "good," just neutral and requires more research. With Amazon, they've increased CapEx spending massively in the past 2 years so that has pushed down CapEx. CFO is growing, driven by organic revenue growth (no "games" with Working Capital), but it's very difficult to assess whether all that CapEx spending will pay off in the long-term. With Salesforce, FCF is definitely growing organically (Revenue growth leads directly to CFO growth, and CapEx varies a bit but not as much as with Amazon), but the company is also spending a ton on acquisitions... will it continue? If CapEx as a % of revenue stays low, it will most likely continue to spend on acquisitions - unlikely to issue dividends, repurchase shares, etc. since it's a growth company. Further Resources http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Free-Cash-Flow.xlsx http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Walmart-Financial-Statements.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Amazon-Financial-Statements.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Salesforce-Financial-Statements.pdf
Views: 140003 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
Learn key financial metrics & ratios to analyze companies financial statements. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You’ll learn about the key metrics and ratios used to analyze companies’ financial statements, including Return on Equity (ROE), Return on Assets (ROA), and Return on Invested Capital (ROIC), as well as Inventory Turnover, Receivables Turnover, Payables Turnover, the Current Ratio, and the Asset Turnover Ratio. Table of Contents: 1:15 Why Metrics and Ratios Matter 4:58 Return on Equity (ROE), Return on Assets (ROA), and Return on Invested Capital (ROIC) 10:50 Asset-Based and Turnover-Based Ratios 14:40 Interpretation of Key Metrics and Ratios for Wal-Mart, Amazon, and Salesforce 19:32 Why the Key Metrics and Ratios Are Sometimes Not That Useful Why Metrics and Ratios? They let you evaluate and compare different companies, and see why one company might be worth more (higher valuation multiple) than others. They let you answer questions such as: How much equity is required to generate a certain amount of after-tax profit (Net Income)? How much in assets is required to generate a certain amount of after-tax profit (Net Income)? How much total capital is required to do this? How dependent is a company on its assets? How liquid is the company? Can it meet its obligations? How quickly does it sell all its Inventory, pay its outstanding invoices, and collect its receivables? ROA, ROA, and ROIC Return on Equity (ROE) = Net Income / Average Shareholders’ Equity Return on Assets (ROA) = Net Income / Average Assets Return on Invested Capital (ROIC) = NOPAT / (Total Debt + Equity + Other Long-Term Funding Sources) Return on Equity (ROE): How efficiently is a company using its equity to generate after-tax profits? Return on Assets (ROA): How well is a company using its assets / how dependent is it on them? Return on Invested Capital (ROIC): How well is a company using ALL its capital, or how much capital is required to grow its business? Here, Wal-Mart easily ranks #1 in all these metrics because it has a very high ROE of 20-25%, an ROA of close to 10%, and an ROIC of 13-14%; for Amazon and Salesforce, these numbers are negative or close to 0%. Asset-Based Ratios and Turnover-Based Ratios Asset Turnover Ratio = Revenue / Average Assets How dependent is a company on its asset base to generate revenue? Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities How liquid is a company? Can it use its short-term assets to repay its short-term obligations, if required? Inventory Turnover = COGS / Average Inventory How many times per year does a company sell off all its Inventory? Receivables Turnover = Revenue / Average AR How quickly does a company collect its receivables from customers that haven’t paid in cash yet? Payables Turnover = COGS / Average AP (*) How quickly does a company submit cash payment for outstanding invoices? Interpretation of Figures for Wal-Mart, Amazon, and Salesforce On the surface, many of these metrics make Wal-Mart seem like a "better" company - much higher ROE, ROA, and ROIC, and Amazon is negative on some of those! Wal-Mart tends to have higher margins as well, and shows more consistency with those margins. Similar inventory management, but Wal-Mart collects from customers and pays invoices much more quickly than Amazon. Wal-Mart is levered a bit more heavily, though. And yet… Amazon is a much more expensive stock, or at least it was at this point in time, and the market values it much more highly based on metrics such as the P / E ratio. At the time of this analysis, Wal-Mart P / E Ratio = 16x, and Amazon P / E Ratio = 456x! How could that be possible? Is Amazon really nearly 30x as valuable as Wal-Mart with WORSE metrics? Answer: The "Revenue Growth" line tells the whole story here. You're comparing 2 very different companies – one is a mature, predictable, mostly slow-growing firm, and one is growing revenue at 20-30% per year, despite revenue in the tens of billions already. Admittedly, Amazon's valuation still seems ridiculous, but it's not that surprising it's valued more highly than Wal-Mart, given that it's growing 20-30x more quickly. The Bottom-Line: These metrics are MOST useful when comparing companies of similar sizes, growth rates, and margins – not as useful when you're comparing a high-growth company to a stable, mature firm. RESOURCES http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-14-Key-Financial-Metrics-Ratios.xlsx http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-14-Key-Financial-Metrics-Ratios.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-14-Amazon-Financial-Statements.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-14-Salesforce-Financial-Statements.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-14-Walmart-Financial-Statements.pdf
Views: 110928 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
Wall St. Training Self-Study Instructor, Hamilton Lin, CFA hones in the importance of understanding how to move up and down the capital structure, from Total Enterprise Value to Equity Value to Price per Share. For more information of the video courses previewed here, go to: http://www.wstselfstudy.com/modules.html Over 80 hours of online, interactive Self-Study Videos! ***YOUTUBE VISITORS ONLY*** 10% off any online course, use Discount code: youtube http://www.wstselfstudy.com Wall St. Training Self-Study provides online, video-based, self-study financial modeling training solutions to Wall Street. Our interactive course modules are Excel-based and specialize in advanced and complex financial modeling, valuation modeling, investment banking, mergers & acquisitions and leveraged buyout training topics. Enhance your skills and master the content required by Wall Street investment banks, M&A, research, asset management, credit, and private equity firms.
Views: 6993 wstss
In this video, I provide a comprehensive overview of the comparable companies analysis used in investment banking and the different steps needed to offer a defensible valuation range. The video is long but offers all the information you need to know for an entry level analyst and any student looking to prepare for a related interview. I am working off the second edition Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions textbook by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl. Chapter 1 covered topics like; - Finding the right universe of comparable companies using business and financial characteristics - Enterprise and equity value multiples - Treasury stock and if-converted methods for fully diluted shares - Net share settlement method (NSS) - Calendarization of financial data - Adjustments for non-recurring items - Benchmarking and valuation For those who are interested in buying the Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl, follow the Amazon link below; https://www.amazon.ca/Investment-Banking-Valuation-Leveraged-Acquisitions/dp/1118656210 If you have any other questions, please comment below. If you enjoyed the video and found it helpful, please like and subscribe to FinanceKid for more videos soon! For those who may be interested in finance and investing, I suggest you check out my Seeking Alpha profile where I write about the market and different investment opportunities. I conduct a full analysis on companies and countries while also commenting on relevant news stories. http://seekingalpha.com/author/robert-bezede/articles#regular_articles
Views: 8443 FinanceKid
Debt vs. Equity. Market Capitalization, Asset Value, and Enterprise Value. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/venture-capital-and-capital-markets/v/chapter-7-bankruptcy-liquidation?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/venture-capital-and-capital-markets/v/more-on-ipos?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: This is an old set of videos, but if you put up with Sal's messy handwriting (it has since improved) and spotty sound, there is a lot to be learned here. In particular, this tutorial walks through starting, financing and taking public a company (and even talks about what happens if it has trouble paying its debts). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Finance and Capital Markets channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ1Rt02HirUvBK2D2-ZO_2g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 362835 Khan Academy
In this Football Field Chart lesson, you'll learn how to create the infamous chart in investment banking. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You will also learn how you can use it to assess and compare different valuation methodologies. While it may take some time to *format* the chart, the actual creation of the chart itself isn't too complicated... IF you know the proper tricks to make the process easier. Table of Contents: 2:02 Setting Up the Graph 4:51 Creating and Formatting the Graph 7:52 Interpreting the Graph 12:03 Recap and Summary 1. Setting Up the Graph First, link in the name for each methodology along with the Min, 25th Percentile, Median, 75th Percentile, and Max. Trick: Need to flip this and display them in the reverse order because of how Excel charts and graphs work… so input numbers in the leftmost column and sort by that column to do this quickly. Then, calculate the distance between each point on the right-hand side. "Trick" here is that each bar in the chart will be the length between one point and the next point - NOT that bar's absolute value! 2. Creating and Formatting the Graph Create a Stacked Bar Chart in Excel, with this data range selected, and then start formatting… we're skipping much of this here in the interest of time, and because it's covered in the Excel course in the graph/chart lessons there. Typically, you hide everything below the "Min" point, and you may also hide the Min to 25th and 75th to Max ranges depending on the #s… definitely the case if there are outliers, as there are here. You could also add a legend, axis titles, better labels, text labels of the indicative range of multiples and the company's figures on the right-hand side, and so on - depends on time available and how annoying your bosses want to be. 3. Interpreting the Graph VERY strange results here - first off, Precedent Transactions typically give higher values than Public Comps… ...but it's the reverse here, possibly because the market has radically shifted in the past ~1 year as multiples have soared. P / E and EV / Revenue multiples seem to indicate that the company is appropriately valued if you go by the median to 75th percentile range of the set (which may be appropriate here, given JAZZ's higher growth and margins vs. the comps). …and EV / EBITDA multiples indicate that the company may be undervalued substantially, even if you look at only the median of each set. The M&A comps and multiples may not even be that meaningful because of the problem we cited above - but it would be interesting to look at *premiums paid* for each company in addition to the standard multiples, because premiums often tell a different and more useful story. The DCF gives a much higher value than other methodologies, but this is not unusual because our view differs the MOST strongly from consensus estimates far into the future - so if we were analyzing this as a potential investment, the DCF would arguably be the most meaningful methodology here. On the other hand, if we did NOT put much time/effort into the DCF, then it might be the least meaningful of our methodologies here. Also, the much lower tax rate is more of a factor in the DCF… got tax inversions? Jazz Pharma is incorporated in Ireland, so its ~18% effective tax rate might be a huge draw for potential acquirers.
Views: 38177 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
UpDebt - an integrated platform for Bond Valuation, Bond Rating, and Bond Market-related Information all at one place. UpDebt’s unique software solution for portfolio valuation, portfolio analytics, and portfolio risk measure is first-of-its-kind.
Views: 900 Logu Dhamodaran
In this video, I provide a comprehensive overview of the precedent transactions analysis used in investment banking and the different steps needed to offer a defensible valuation range. The video is long but offers all the information you need to know as an entry level analyst and for any student looking to prepare for a related interview. I am working off the second edition Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions textbook by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl. Chapter 2 covered topics like; - Strategic vs. Financial buyers - Deal dynamics and motivations - Purchase considerations; cash, stock-for-stock, cash/stock mix - Schedule TO, 14D-9, 13E-3, and proxy statements - Enterprise and equity value multiples - Treasury stock and if-converted methods for fully diluted shares - Synergies and necessary adjustments For those who are interested in buying the Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl, follow the Amazon link below; https://www.amazon.ca/Investment-Banking-Valuation-Leveraged-Acquisitions/dp/1118656210 If you have any other questions, please comment below. If you enjoyed the video and found it helpful, please like and subscribe to FinanceKid for more videos soon! For those who may be interested in finance and investing, I suggest you check out my Seeking Alpha profile where I write about the market and different investment opportunities. I conduct a full analysis on companies and countries while also commenting on relevant news stories. http://seekingalpha.com/author/robert-bezede/articles#regular_articles
Views: 2137 FinanceKid
Once you’ve watched the full CH4 video and learned about the LBO transaction and the private equity industry, test your knowledge with these 15 questions! I walk through the examples and tie what we learned in the chapter video to these questions. So what did we learn? - What are private equity firms and how do they invest? - How does leverage impact the equity returns of a sponsor? - What is a leveraged buyout (LBO)? - How does changing the financing mix change overall returns? - What is the internal rate of return (IRR)? - What are the characteristics of a strong LBO candidate? - What are the available sources of LBO financing? For those who are interested in buying the Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl, follow the Amazon link below; https://www.amazon.ca/Investment-Banking-Valuation-Leveraged-Acquisitions/dp/1118656210 If you have any other questions, please comment below. If you enjoyed the video and found it helpful, please like and subscribe to FinanceKid for more videos soon! For those who may be interested in finance and investing, I suggest you check out my Seeking Alpha profile where I write about the market and different investment opportunities. I conduct a full analysis on companies and countries while also commenting on relevant news stories. http://seekingalpha.com/author/robert-bezede/articles#regular_articles
Views: 969 FinanceKid
Global Investment Banking Analyst/Associate Program Location: London or Remote/Web Video Conferencing The Global Investment Banking Program is an exciting opportunity to gain experience of real world transactions and working knowledge for Investment Banking, Private Equity and Hedge Fund careers. The program will give you solid understanding of transaction concepts and robust practical skills for extensive investment banking work experience. The 5-week program provides the following real world experience: • Analysis of London stock exchange and New York stock exchange listed companies • Preparation of buy and sell side transaction pitches, teasers, and writing confidential investment memo • Excel Financial modeling and valuation of public listed companies by using "Comparable comps" method • Excel Financial modeling and valuation of public listed companies by using " Discounted cash flow" method • Excel Financial modeling and determination of the premium paid by buyer of the business by using "Transaction comps" method • Excel Financial modeling and leveraged buyout of the company by a Private Equity sponsor • Preparation of M&A transaction-ready model with Accretion/Dilution analysis of the deal • Board presentation and closing of investment banking transactions Upon completion of the program you will be prepared to carry out responsibilities of a full-time Analyst/Associate in investment banks and private equity firms. The program statement on your CV and your work experience reference report will enable you to stand out from thousands of other candidates and ensure that you are a strong contender in one the most competitive industries in the world. How to apply: Please send your CV to [email protected] Please note that a placement fee applies
Views: 15336 Global Banking School
Valuation Methodologies 1. Public Company Valuation TEV = MVE + Debt + Preferred + Minority - Cash 2. Comp Companies – Also known as trading comps. Management team gives you 1 to 2 years projections or equity research comp reports to get forward multiples (x Revenue or x EBITDA ) which may be used as the basis for this valuation. You can get comps from the general overview as it will discuss the target’s comps in the 10K. Find comps with good multiples to then tell your story to the marketplace to then get a certain valuation. a. Select the universe of comparable companies – Choose 7, 8, 10 comps, need their 10K, 10Q, analyst reports to get TEV for each comp then divide by line item to get multiple. b. Locate financial information on comp companies – Information must come from latest filing (10K or 10Q). Print out 10K, 10Q, analyst reports. c. Spread key financial information, ratios and multiples – Calculate TEV (in comp spread tab). To get MVE, use TSM method. TSM = Exercisable options outstanding x (share price – strike) / share price. d. Benchmark comp companies – Get the multiple that the company is trading at for each metric for each comp and get mean and median of comps for the metrics (ex. TEV/EBITDA) e. Determine implied valuation – Multiply mean and median multiple x the revenue or EBITDA to get the valuation range for your target company. Notes: The better the company, the higher the multiple and the better valuation you get. In IB/PE/CorpFin, you need to know comp companies and transaction comps. “Here are the comps in your sector…” Higher multiple because… Operating in better markets, better operations The multiple tells you which company is better, margin analysis tells you why they are better. Sell side key question: “Which comp would you use to guide potential buyers?” 3. Precedent Transactions – comp transactions a. Select universe of comp transactions b. Locate deal-related and financial information – Need press release of the deal, 8K, 10K, and 10Q. Type of payment: cash, stock, cash & stock. c. Spread financial information, ratios and multiples – Get transaction TEV (implied) & transaction MVE (implied) d. Benchmark precedent transactions e. Determine implied valuation Notes: 20% to 25% control premium paid with the transaction multiple being an implied one based upon the valuation. Determine whether the market is good or bad based upon whether people are paying good premiums (control premiums). When a transaction occurs, update client on the latest transaction to show them impact on the control premiums being paid and implied multiple as well. Point to the transaction comps that have the highest control premium. 4. Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) a. Spread historical financial statements (input historicals) and derive historical ratios, trends and variables (drivers of future performance; margins and growth rates). Project financial statements (proforma). Revolver modeling to link IS, BS, and SCF b. Project free cash flow (FCF) c. Determine Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) – Discount rate Cost of equity: Rf = 10 year treasury Market risk premium = Rm – Rf. Refer to Ibbotson. Ultimately this is S&P returns over 70, 80, or 90 years Beta = Levered beta of comps to unlevered median and mean of comps (unlevered beta); should be .5 to 2.5; 2 year to 5 year betas (taking out capital structure and relever to actual capital structure. With beta, we are putting capital structure on unlevered beta mean and median of comps to calculate WACC of own company. Cost of debt: weighted average of tranches of debt tax effected; found in 10K. Rates from the notes. If private company, get from clients the tranches and to get rates, go to DCM to get approximation. Cost of equity 20% to 25% in private markets. No use of debt is an inefficient use of capital. Trying to optimize the D/E ratio to minimize cost of financing. d. Determine terminal value – EBITDA multiple which is going to be almost 80% of the company value. Terminal value = LTM multiple from comps x EBITDA. Perpetuity growth rate should be 2.5% to 3% and should not be larger than the size of the GDP of the country e. Calculate net present value (NPV) and determine implied valuation
Views: 108 Investment Banking University
In class today we went through a DCF case study example. This was similar to a portion of a bulge bracket bank final round case one of our past students had provided for us. My fourth book coming out this month will be pages of similar case studies increasing in difficulty to best prepare a candidate for investment banking interviews. https://www.amazon.com/Technical-Interview-Investment-Banking-Website/dp/1119161398/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&qid=1486645420&sr=8-4&keywords=pignataro
Views: 11283 Paul Pignataro
Why you can't just "ignore" a company's ownership stakes in other companies. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ You'll also learn how to factor in partially owned companies when calculating Enterprise Value and valuation multiples. This time around, we'll focus on Noncontrolling Interests (AKA Minority Interests) -- cases where the company owns over 50%, but under 100%, of other companies. 1:55 How to Consolidate the Statements with Noncontrolling Interests 3:37 Why You Can't Ignore Noncontrolling Interests in the Enterprise Value Calculation 6:41 How to Adjust for Noncontrolling Interests in Enterprise Value 8:44 Summary Why You Calculate Enterprise Value the Way You Do... Pretty much everyone agrees that you take a company's Equity Value, subtract Cash, and add Debt to calculate Enterprise Value. But after that it gets murkier, and not everyone agrees on which items to add or subtract. One common scenario: a company owns a % of another company, and it reflects that ownership somewhere on its Balance Sheet... what do you do? With an Equity Investment or Associate Company, the Parent Company owns less than 50% and records the stake as an Asset on its BS. With Noncontrolling Interests (formerly "Minority Interests"), the Parent company owns more than 50% but less than 100%, consolidates the financial statements 100%, and records the value of the stake it does NOT own on the L&E side of the BS. You CANNOT ignore these items when calculating Enterprise Value since they impact the valuation multiples that are based on Enterprise Value. E.g for Noncontrolling Interests (formerly known as Minority Interests): The Parent Company has the following stats: Equity Value = $390 Cash = $50 Debt = $200 Parent Company EBITDA = $63 Consolidated EBITDA = $78 It owns 70% of another company, and that Majority-Owned Company is worth $100. So you just say Enterprise Value = $390 -- $50 + $200 = $540, right? Wrong! Here's the Problem: That Equity Value of $390 already reflects 70% * $100. In other words, it already includes the ownership percentage in the Majority-Owned Company times the Majority-Owned Company's value. Without that stake, the Parent Company's Equity Value would be $320 instead. So as it stands, this Enterprise Value of $540 also includes the value of that 70% stake. BUT EBITDA includes 100% of the Majority-Owned Company's EBITDA, because accounting rules state that the statements should be consolidated -- you literally add together each item 100% - when the Parent Company owns over 50% of another company. Let's say the Majority-Owned Company had $15 in EBITDA. The Combined Company's EBITDA would NOT be $63 + $15 * 70% = $73.5. It would actually be $78 ($63 + $15)! So Enterprise Value reflects 70% of the Majority-Owned Company, but EBITDA reflects 100% of the Majority-Owned Company's EBITDA. Theoretically, you could fix this by subtracting 30% of the Majority-Owned Company's EBITDA... But in real life, companies don't disclose enough information for you to do this. They only show the Majority-Owned Company's Net Income - not enough to calculate EBIT or EBITDA. So instead, we add 30% * $100 to Enterprise Value -- representing the portion the Parent Company does NOT own -- to make sure that BOTH Enterprise Value AND EBITDA reflect 100% of that other stake. The equation then becomes: Enterprise Value = Equity Value + Debt -- Cash + Noncontrolling Interests Enterprise Value = $390 + $200 -- $50 + $30 = $570 Summary: The key concept is "Apples to Apples" comparison -- that's the easiest way to think of Equity Investments (Associate Companies) and Noncontrolling Interests (Minority Interests). Equity Value will always implicitly reflect the value of the Parent Company's stake in other companies. If that stake is 70% and the other company is worth $100, Equity Value therefore reflects 70% * $100, or $70. If that stake is 30% and the other company is worth $200, Equity Value therefore reflects 30% * $200, or $60. And that's fine. The problem, though, is that due to accounting rules (under both US GAAP and IFRS), the Parent Company does NOT actually reflect 70% or 30% of the other company's financials on its own Income Statement... until the adjustments to Net Income at the very bottom. Instead, accounting rules say: "Hey, you have to take an 'all or nothing' approach and either add 100% of the other company's numbers to your own, or add 0% of the other company's numbers... and then adjust for the percentage that you do actually own at the bottom of the Income Statement." And that creates problems for valuation multiples, such as EV / EBITDA, EV / EBIT, and so on... Since Enterprise Value reflects the 70% or the 30% you own in another company, but EBIT or EBITDA reflect 0% or 100% ownership. To fix it, you adjust Enterprise Value to make sure IT also includes 100%, or 0%, of the partially owned company's value.
Views: 20673 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
Programme Director Andreas T. Angelopoulos discusses how valuation applies to private equity investments, and the way in which we approach this key theme in the Oxford Chicago Valuation Programme. Find out more on the programme: http://www.sbs.oxford.edu/valuation
Views: 1814 Saïd Business School, University of Oxford
Test your knowledge of comparable companies analysis! The following video covers the chapter 1 questions from the Joshua Rosenbaum Investment Banking book. The multiple choice questions offer a great challenge for any students preparing for their investment banking interviews. Chapter 1 covered topics like; - Finding the right universe of comparable companies using business and financial characteristics - Enterprise and equity value multiples - Treasury stock and if-converted methods for fully diluted shares - Net share settlement method (NSS) - Calendarization of financial data - Adjustments for non-recurring items - Benchmarking and valuation For those who are interested in buying the Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions by Joshua Rosenbaum and Joshua Pearl, follow the Amazon link below; https://www.amazon.ca/Investment-Banking-Valuation-Leveraged-Acquisitions/dp/1118656210 If you have any other questions, please comment below. If you enjoyed the video and found it helpful, please like and subscribe to FinanceKid for more videos soon! For those who may be interested in finance and investing, I suggest you check out my Seeking Alpha profile where I write about the market and different investment opportunities. I conduct a full analysis on companies and countries while also commenting on relevant news stories. http://seekingalpha.com/author/robert-bezede/articles#regular_articles
Views: 1780 FinanceKid
In this tutorial, you will learn how Equity Value and Enterprise Value change after an M&A deal takes place. You will also learn how the combined company’s Equity Value and Enterprise Value relate to the Equity Value and Enterprise Value of the buyer and seller in the deal. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" Table of Contents: 1:01 Why Equity Value and Enterprise Value Matter, and the Rules 4:11 Excel Demonstration of Changes in an M&A Deal 9:49 Why the Rules Don’t Work in Real Life How Equity Value and Enterprise Value Change in M&A Deals A common interview question goes something like: “Company A acquires Company B using 100% debt – what is the combined company’s Enterprise Value?” Another common variant is “Company A acquires Company B using 100% stock – what is the combined EV / EBITDA multiple?” Fortunately, there are a few simple rules you can use to determine these answer. First, recall what Enterprise Value MEANS: it’s the value of a company’s core business operations to all investors in the company. So when moving from Equity Value to Enterprise Value, you add Debt and Preferred Stock (and anything else representing other investors) and subtract non-core assets, such as Cash and Investments. The end result is that regardless of how a company finances itself, Enterprise Value does not change and neither do Enterprise Value-based multiples. In the same way, in M&A deals the combined Enterprise Value and combined Enterprise Value-based multiples do not change regardless of how the acquirer buys the seller. Rules for Equity Value and Enterprise Value in M&A Deals Combined Equity Value: Acquirer’s Equity Value, plus the value of stock it issues to buy the Seller. Combined Enterprise Value: Acquirer’s Enterprise Value + the Seller’s Enterprise Value Combined EV / EBITDA: Add both companies’ Enterprise Values and EBITDAs; not impacted by cash/stock/debt mix. Combined P / E: No “shortcut”; impacted by funding mix. Calculate it by determining the Combined Equity Value first, and then the combined Net Income after factoring in foregone interest on cash and interest paid on new debt, and any tax rate differences. Example Calculations: Say that Company A has an Enterprise Value of $100, Equity Value of $80, EBITDA of $10, and Net Income of $4. Its tax rate is 25%. Company B has an Enterprise Value of $40, Equity Value of $40, EBITDA of $8, and Net Income of $2. The foregone interest rate on cash is 2%, and the interest rate on debt is 10%. So if Company A acquires Company B for $40 with 100% debt: Combined Enterprise Value = $100 + $40 = $140 Combined Equity Value = $80 + $40 * 0% Stock Used = $80 Combined EBITDA = $10 + $8 = $18 Combined Net Income = Company A Net Income + Company B Net Income + Acquisition Effects = $4 + $2 – $40 * 100% Debt * 10% Interest Rate * (1 – 25% Tax Rate) – $40 * 100% Cash * 2% Foregone Interest Rate * (1 – 25% Tax Rate) = $3 Combined EV / EBITDA = $140 / $18 = 7.8x Combined P / E = $80 / $3 = 26.7x If you then change around the mix of cash, stock, and debt, the Combined EV / EBITDA, Combined EBITDA, and Combined Enterprise Value will not change at all. However, the Combined Equity Value, Combined Net Income, and Combined P / E will all change depending on the financing mix. In Real Life These rules don’t quite hold up… because: Premium Paid for Seller: Will have to use seller’s Enterprise Value at the share price premium instead. Most sellers are acquired for more than their current market caps! Share Price After-Effects: Does the market like / not like the deal? If so, the buyer’s share price and therefore its Equity Value and Enterprise Value will change after the deal is announced. Synergies, Other Acquisition Effects: Could affect share prices, EBITDA, Net Income, and everything else! RESOURCES: http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/106-10-Equity-Value-Enterprise-Value-in-MA-Deals.xlsx http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/106-10-Equity-Value-Enterprise-Value-in-MA-Deals.pdf
Views: 19478 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
You’ll get a quick, but very powerful, tip on how to optimize your Excel setup with the Quick Access Toolbar (QAT) and custom shortcuts in this tutorial. These tips will save you a ton of time when creating valuations, organizing data, and doing any formatting exercise. http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" Shortcuts Introduced: These are all BUILT-IN shortcuts: Alt, T, O: Options Menu Alt, H, FC: Font Color Alt, H, FS: Font Size Alt, H, H: Fill Color Alt, H, A, C: Center Alt, H, B: Borders Alt, H, O, I: AutoFit Column Width Alt, H, O, W: Column Width Alt, H, 0: Increase Decimal Places Alt, H, 9: Decrease Decimal Places These are the NEW shortcuts you can create via the Quick Access Toolbar: Alt, 1: Font Color Alt, 2: Font Size Alt, 3: Fill Color Alt, 4: Center Alt, 5: Borders Alt, 6: AutoFit Column Width Alt, 7: Column Width Alt, 8: Increase Decimal Places Alt, 9: Decrease Decimal Places Lesson Outline: Many Excel shortcuts that you use repeatedly when creating valuations, models and when formatting data are cumbersome to enter. Something as simple as changing the font color takes 4 keystrokes – Alt, H, F, C – if you use the built-in method for it. Other common commands such as alignment, fill colors, borders, and column widths also take 3-4 keystrokes. A more efficient alternative is to set up the Quick Access Toolbar (QAT) so that you can access the most common commands with shortcuts like Alt, 1 instead. You can either import our file (see the link below under RESOURCES) or go to the Options menu (Alt, T, O) and then the Quick Access Toolbar tab, and create the menu yourself. We recommend setting “Font Color” in position #1, followed by Font Size, Fill Color, Center, Borders, AutoFit Column Width, Column Width, and Increase and Decrease Decimal places. These are some of the most frequently used commands in Excel, and you’ll save a ton of time with the new, shorter versions. A command like AutoFit Column Width that used to take 4 keystrokes now takes only 2 (Alt, 6) with this approach. You might realize 30-40% time savings when working in Excel if you use this full set of shortcuts. They’re especially useful for formatting and analyzing data and doing the initial setup in financial models. RESOURCES: https://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/Excel-QAT-Export.exportedUI https://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/Excel-Shortcuts-Investment-Banking-Slides.pdf
Views: 48832 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
In this Value-Added Real Estate Private Equity Case Study tutorial video, you'll learn what to expect in real estate private equity case studies and you'll get an example of a real value-added RE PE case study with the solution file and a walk-through of the key points. Please get all the files and the textual description and explanation here: http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/value-added-real-estate-private-equity-case-study/ Table of Contents: 2:41 Part 1: The Types of RE PE Case Studies 5:19 Part 2: This Case Study and What Makes It Tricky 12:40 Part 3: Why Excel is Horrible for This Case Study 16:59 The Scenarios in This Model 17:51 Part 4: The Property Model and Returns Analysis 26:39 Part 5: The Investment Recommendation 28:37 Recap and Summary Part 1: The Types of RE PE Case Studies The 3 main types are core / core-plus, value-added, and opportunistic. In the first category, the property stays nearly the same over the holding period and the market analysis is more important than a complex model. In the second category, the property changes significantly (more tenants, higher rents, a renovation, etc.) and the models tend to be more complex. The modeling often gets the most complex in the third category because a new property is developed, an existing one is redeveloped, or the building changes massively (e.g., rescuing a distressed property). The complexity also depends on how granular the model is - modeling individual tenants with different lease terms always gets more complicated than a high-level model with average unit sizes, square feet or square meters, etc. Part 2: This Case Study and What Makes It Tricky This case study is less about analyzing the market data, and more about getting all the Excel formulas correct, making the correct calculations, and finishing on time. Since we have information on 13 individual tenants in the building, we NEED to do a more granular analysis and look at each tenant separately. The Excel formulas for free months of rent, TIs and LCs, and other key terms in the leases are somewhat tricky to figure out. Part 3: Why Excel is Horrible for This Case Study The problem here is that there are two scenarios for each existing tenant: they might renew, or they might not renew, when their lease expires. If it's just these two scenarios you can do a reasonable job plotting them out in Excel. But when it goes beyond that - say, 2-year contracts over a 10-year period, resulting in 5 "renewal points" and 2^5 or 32 scenarios - Excel becomes unwieldy for this exercise. You're better off using ARGUS to model this if you have that level of complexity and an entire probability tree. As it stands, our formulas get quite complex here though they are not THAT difficult to understand if you break down the individual components. The Scenarios in This Model The main difference between the three scenarios here is that the occupancy rate stays the same, at 74%, in the Downside Case, whereas it increases to 80% in the Base Case because we find three new tenants, and it increases to 85% in the Upside Case as we find four new tenants. Also, the growth assumptions and the TIs, LCs, and other concessions such as free months of rent differ between the three cases and are most generous in the Upside Case and least generous in the Downside Case. Part 4: The Property Model and Returns Analysis In short, after setting up all the formulas for rent, free months of rent, absorption (the difference between market rent and in-place rent), turnover vacancy (the time between one tenant cancelling and moving out and finding a new one to replace him), and general vacancy, we fill out the rest of the Pro-Forma Model. We include all the operating expenses to determine the property's NOI, and then plot out the debt repayments over time and the interest expense paid on debt. The Acquisition/Exit assumptions and Sources & Uses schedule are all quite straightforward: we assume lower Exit Cap Rates due to the renovation, but there's less of a decline in the Downside Case. In the Returns Analysis, we set up a "waterfall schedule" to split and distribute the returns: up to a 10% IRR is split 80/20 between the LPs and GPs, then between a 10% and 15% IRR it's split 70/30, and then above 15% it's split 60/40. Part 5: The Investment Recommendation We recommend acquiring the property because the numbers work well and meet our targeted IRR and CoC multiple in the Base and Downside cases, the market data is positive, and we believe it's plausible for the occupancy rate and average rents to increase up to the market levels in the area. For the deal NOT to work, something catastrophic would have to happen: rents falling by 25%, the lease renewal rate dropping to 30%, or something in that vein... and we believe there are ways to mitigate against all those risks. http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/value-added-real-estate-private-equity-case-study/
Views: 27295 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
In this tutorial, you’ll learn why the real price paid by a buyer to acquire a seller in an M&A deal is neither the Purchase Equity Value nor the Purchase Enterprise Value… exactly. http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" Table of Contents: 4:29: Problem #1: The Treatment of Debt 8:03: Problem #2: The Treatment of Cash 11:45: Recap and Summary Common questions: “In an M&A deal, does the buyer pay the Equity Value or the Enterprise Value to acquire the seller?” “What does it mean in press releases when they say the purchase consideration ‘includes the assumption of debt’? Does that mean the price is the Enterprise Value?” The Basic Definitions Equity Value: Value of ALL the company’s assets, but only to common equity investors (shareholders). Enterprise Value: Value of ONLY the core business operations, but to ALL investors (equity, debt, etc.). So when you calculate Enterprise Value, starting with Equity Value… Add Items When: They represent other investors (Debt investors, Preferred Stock investors, etc.) or long-term funding sources (Capital Leases, Unfunded Pensions) Subtract Items When: They are not related to the company’s core business operations (side activities, cash or excess cash, investments, real estate, etc.) The Confusion The problem is that many sources say Enterprise Value is what it “really costs to acquire a company.” But that’s not exactly true – yes, sometimes Enterprise Value is closer, but it depends on the deal terms and the items in Enterprise Value. We know, WITH CERTAINTY, that if you acquire 100% of a company, you must pay for 100% of its common shares. So the Purchase Equity Value is sort of a “floor” for the purchase price in an M&A deal. But should you really add the seller’s Debt, Preferred Stock, and other funding sources, and subtract 100% of the seller’s cash balance to determine the “real price”? There are many problems with that approach, but we’ll look at two of them here: PROBLEM #1: Does Debt really increase the purchase price? It depends, because debt can be either “assumed” (kept) or “refinanced” (replaced with new debt or paid off). Debt is Assumed: Does not increase the amount the buyer “really pays” for the seller. Debt is Repaid with the Buyer’s Cash: Does increase the amount the buyer “really pays”. Existing Debt is Replaced with New Debt: Increases the amount the buyer “really pays,” but the buyer still isn’t paying more cash. PROBLEM #2: Does Cash really reduce the purchase price? A buyer can’t just “take” a seller’s entire cash balance following a deal – all companies need a certain “minimum cash balance” to keep operating, paying the bills, etc. That portion of cash is actually a core business operating asset. Enterprise Value: As a simplification, we ignore the minimum cash and subtract all cash instead. So if a company operating by itself always needs some minimum amount of cash, it certainly still needs a minimum amount of cash in an M&A deal. Other Complications Transaction Fees: These always exist, and will always increase the price the buyer pays (lawyers, accountants, bankers, etc.). Unfunded Pensions, Capital Leases, etc.: These don’t necessarily have to be “paid” or “repaid” upon change of control… so they may not even affect the price, even though they factor into Enterprise Value. Extra Cash: What if the buyer’s cash + seller’s cash are used to fund the deal? Then the real price paid may not even be comparable to the seller’s Equity Value or Enterprise Value. The Bottom Line You have to distinguish between the *valuation* of a company or deal and the *actual price paid*. Equity Value and Enterprise Value are useful for valuation, but less useful for determining the real price paid. The real price paid may be between Equity Value and Enterprise Value, above them, or even below them, depending on the terms of the deal – due to the treatment of debt and cash, fees, and liabilities that don’t affect the cash cost of doing the deal. When you see language like “Including assumption of net debt,” that means the approximate Purchase Enterprise Value for the deal, because they are calculating it as Purchase Equity Value + Debt – Cash. But it’s still not what the buyer actually pays – it’s just a way to value the deal and get multiples like EV / EBITDA. RESOURCES: https://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-10-Purchase-Price-MA-Deals.pdf
Views: 42605 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
So, we've been putting off a kind of basic question here. What is money? What is currency? How are the two different. Well, not to give away too much, but money has a few basic functions. It acts as a store of value, a medium of exchange, and as a unit of account. Money isn't just bills and coins. It can be anything that meets these three criteria. In US prisons, apparently, pouches of Mackerel are currency. Yes, mackerel the fish. Paper and coins work as money because they're backed by the government, which is an advantage over mackerel. So, once you've got money, you need finance. We'll talk about borrowing, lending, interest, and stocks and bonds. Also, this episode features a giant zucchini, which Adriene grew in her garden. So that's cool. Special thanks to Dave Hunt for permission to use his PiPhone video. this guy really did make an artisanal smartphone! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8eaiNsFhtI8 Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Fatima Iqbal, Penelope Flagg, Eugenia Karlson, Alex S, Jirat, Tim Curwick, Christy Huddleston, Eric Kitchen, Moritz Schmidt, Today I Found Out, Avi Yashchin, Chris Peters, Eric Knight, Jacob Ash, Simun Niclasen, Jan Schmid, Elliot Beter, Sandra Aft, SR Foxley, Ian Dundore, Daniel Baulig, Jason A Saslow, Robert Kunz, Jessica Wode, Steve Marshall, Anna-Ester Volozh, Christian, Caleb Weeks, Jeffrey Thompson, James Craver, and Markus Persson -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 716164 CrashCourse
In this LBO Model tutorial, you'll learn how to build a very simple LBO model "on paper" that you can use to answer quick questions in PE (and other) interviews. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" This matters because in many cases, they'll ask you to calculate numbers such as IRR and multiple of invested capital very quickly and will not actually ask you to build a more complex model until later in the process. You should always START this exercise by looking at the actual question or set of questions they are asking you: "Calculate the purchase price required for ABC Capital to obtain a 3.0x multiple of invested capital (MOIC) if it plans to sell OpCo after five years at an EV / EBITDA multiple of 6.0x." So they're giving you the exit multiple and the return on investment that the PE firm is targeting, and you have to figure out the initial purchase price by "working backwards." Here's how we interpret each line in this case study and use it in the model: "OpCo currently has EBITDA of $250mm, and ABC believes that the new management team could keep EBITDA flat for the next 5 years." This tells you to make the initial EBITDA $250mm and keep it at that level for 5 years - skip revenue, COGS, OpEx, and everything else because none of that matters if this is all they give you. "ABC Capital has obtained debt financing of $750mm at 10% interest, and OpCo expects working capital to be a source of funds at $6mm per year." The initial debt balance is $750mm and there's a 10% interest rate, so the interest expense will be $75mm per year. In the "Cash Flow Statement Adjustments", since Working Capital is a SOURCE of funds it will add $6mm to cash flow each year. "OpCo requires capital expenditures of $35mm per year, and it has a tax rate of 40%. Assume no transaction fees, zero minimum cash required, and that PP&E on the balance sheet remains constant for the next 5 years." Also in the CFS section, CapEx = $35mm per year, and Depreciation also equals $35mm per year since the PP&E balance does not change at all. So you can also fill in the Depreciation figure on the Income Statement. No transaction fees and no minimum cash requirement simplify the purchase price and debt repayment - although we don't even have debt repayment here. "Assume that excess cash is NOT used to repay debt, and instead simply accumulates on the Balance Sheet." This makes the final numbers easier to calculate, since interest expense will never change and you can simply add up cash generated to get to the final cash number at the end. PROCESS: 1. Start with the Income Statement - EBITDA is $250mm per year. Subtract Depreciation of $35mm per year, and interest of $75mm per year. So EBIT = $140mm. Taxes = $140mm * 40%, so Net Income = $140mm - $56mm = $84mm. 2. On the simplified CFS, Net Income = $84mm, Depreciation = $35mm, Change in Working Capital = $6mm, CapEx = ($35mm), so Cash Generated per year = $90mm. 3. EBITDA Exit Multiple = 6.0x, and final year EBITDA = $250mm, so Exit EV = $1.5B. Subtract the outstanding debt of $750mm and add the cash generated in this period of $450mm, so Equity Proceeds = $1.2B. 4. Targeted MOIC = 3.0x so the PE firm would have to invest $400mm in the beginning. $400mm equity + $750mm debt = $1.150B, so the purchase multiple is $1,150 / $250 = 4.6x. Further Resources http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/109-04-Simple-LBO-Model.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/109-04-Simple-LBO-Model.xlsx
Views: 218528 Mergers & Inquisitions / Breaking Into Wall Street
For candidates preparing for an equity research interview, the "Pitch Me A Stock" question will almost surely be asked at least once throughout the interview process. It is an important question that highlights the candidates who can articulate investment ideas and show an understanding of the market. So how do you prepare for this question? The question can be split into three steps; 1) The Statement 2) The Thesis 3) The Valuation Watch the full video to learn how to answer this question and take another step towards securing your dream job! If you have any other questions, please comment below. If you enjoyed the video and found it helpful, please like and subscribe to FinanceKid for more videos soon! For those who may be interested in finance and investing, I suggest you check out my Seeking Alpha profile where I write about the market and different investment opportunities. I conduct a full analysis on companies and countries while also commenting on relevant news stories. http://seekingalpha.com/author/robert-bezede/articles#regular_articles
Views: 20176 FinanceKid
Sensitivity Analysis for Financial Modeling Course | Corporate Finance Institute Enroll in the full course to earn a certificate and advance your career: http://courses.corporatefinanceinstitute.com/courses/sensitivity-analysis-financial-modeling This advanced financial modeling course will take a deep dive into sensitivity analysis with focus on practical applications for professionals working in investment banking, equity research, financial planning & analysis (FP&A), and finance functions. Course agenda includes: Introduction Why perform sensitivity analysis? Model integration - Direct and Indirect methods Analyzing results Gravity sort table Tornado charts Presenting results By the end of this course, you will have a thorough grasp of how to build a robust sensitivity analysis system into your financial model. Form and function are both critical to ensure you can handle quick changes and information requests when you're working on a live transaction.
Views: 169025 Corporate Finance Institute