In this video we discuss the different types of chemical reactions that take place in the body, We cover synthesis, decomposition, exchange and reversible reactions.
Chemical reactions are interactions between atoms and molecules, which involve the formation or breaking of chemical bonds, and are usually characterized by a chemical change.
There are 3 main types of chemical reactions that are important in anatomy and physiology, synthesis reactions, decomposition reactions and exchange reactions.
In synthesis reactions, 2 or more substances, which are referred to as reactants combine to form a more complex substance called a product. In synthesis reactions, new bonds are formed and energy is required for the reaction to occur and the new product to form. These types of reactions occur regularly in the body. The formula for this type of reaction is reactant a plus reactant b, produce product ab, with the required energy.
An example of this is when amino acid reactants combine to form more complex protein products.
Decomposition reactions are when more complex substances break down to form simpler substances. In decomposition reactions, bonds are broken down and energy is released. This energy can be in the form of heat or it can be captured and stored for future use.
The formula for this is substance ab breaks down to a plus b plus energy. An example of this is when a complex nutrient is broken down in a cell to release energy for the cell to use for its other cellular functions.
Decomposition and synthesis reactions are often coupled together in that the energy released from the decomposition reaction can be used for a synthesis reaction.
An exchange reaction is when 2 different reactants exchange components to form 2 new products. An exchange reaction is often written as reactant ab plus reactant cd lead to product ad plus product cb. Exchange reactions basically decompose 2 compounds and synthesize 2 new compounds.
An example of this is the reaction of lactic acid and sodium bicarbonate. H dot lactate represents lactic acid and nahco3 represents sodium bicarbonate. Decomposition and synthesis occurs and we have sodium lactate represented by na dot lactate and carbonic acid represented by h dot hco3.
One note, many synthesis, decomposition and exchange reactions are reversible reactions in that they are reversible. Many times this is written as a plus b, arrow pointing in both directions and ab.