Comparisons can be made by using a comparative or a superlative. This lesson is on comparisons, in both comparative and superlative form. In this lesson I'm going to show you how to make comparisons with adjectives, the exceptions, so the irregular forms comparisons with adverbs, and obviously the exceptions there, a construction that we call as and as and when to use as or like. Now let's get started. What is a comparative? A comparative compares two things, usually in combination with the word than.
My sister is taller than me.
The superlative compares three or more things usually in combination with the.
She is the tallest of them all. So where the comparative only compared me my sister, with the superlative my sister is compared to everyone and we have concluded that she's the tallest.
Now how do we form comparisons? When it concerns one syllable adjectives such as old young and quick, we simply add '-er' to the adjective for the comparative
and '-est' to the adjective for the superlative. So we have the addictive old, and the comparative older,and the superlative is oldest. The same goes for young young younger youngest, quick quicker quickest. I'm going to show you some examples in sentences.
My grandfather is old,
My grandmother is older than him but their neighbour is the oldest person alive.
So my grandfather is old, is an adjective because it says something about the noun
my grandfather, then when we compare my grandfather to my grandmother
we must conclude that my grandmother is older so here we use a comparative but when we compare their neighbour to my grandmother and grandfather or more when he compare the neighbour of my grandmother and grandfather to the rest of the
world we must conclude that he is the oldest so the superlative form.
I am young, my brother is younger than me but my sister is the youngest in our
family. A lion is quick, a leopard is quicker but a cheetah is the quickest of felines.
Please note, that verbs that end in an '-e' such as safe we only add an 'r'or 'st':
safe safer safest.
Now it is a little bit trickier when it comes to two-syllable adjectives, when this stress is on the second syllable we add 'er'or 'est' to the adjective for example: quiet
quieter quietest. The stress in quiet is on the final syllable quiet so we add 'er' or 'est'.
quiet quieter quietest. Yet when the stress is on the first syllable we put more in front of the comparative, and most in front of the superlative so we don't use
'er' or 'est.' For example silent, more silent most silent. Please note that the stress in
silent is on the first syllable, Adjectives with three syllables or more we simply put
more or most before the addictive. So more for the comparative and most for the superlative. London is beautiful, yet I consider Venice more beautiful and in my opinion
Paris is the most beautiful city in the world. Now obviously there are some exceptions. First that we call 'leersomeowy' these adjectives that and ens in the letter above and they contain two or more syllables with the stress on the second syllable. With these words we also add -er or -est.
little, littler, littlest.
clever, cleverer, cleverest.
handsome, handsomer, handsomest.
narrow narrower narrowest.
happy, happier, happiest and please note that
the 'y' has become an 'i'. the general exceptions are:
good, better, best.
bad, worse, worst
much or many, more and most
and far, further, furthest.
These are the most common ones and it is advisable that you just simply study them because there's no rule to follow hereand please note that bad badder baddest
Now let's have a look at adverbs. One syllable adverbs such as hard, late and fair,
we also add -er for the comparative or -est for the superlative.
I drive fast, yet my mom drives faster, but my little brother drives the fastest.
Please note that an adverbs here says something about the verb, the way we drive. The train arrived late, luckily my connecting shuttle bus was later and thankfully my plane departed the latest of them all when it comes to two or more syllable adverbs such as
easily carefully and calmly we put more for the comparative or most for the superlatives before the adverb:
He drove easily or carefully through the desert, yet he drove more easily more carefully through the woods and most easily or most carefully on the highway. Also with the adverbs there are some exceptions.
The irregular forms:
well, better, best.
Remeber with the adjectives it was
good, better, best.
little, less, least.
much more most