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Past Simple and Present Perfect - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
02:17
Past simple and present perfect - how to form them and how to use them correctly. This lesson is about the difference between the past simple and the present perfect. I am going to show you when to use a past simple and when to use a present perfect and more important how to keep them apart. Take a look at these sentences: I broke my leg on holiday last year. I have broken my leg. The first sentence is in the past simple tense, the second sentence is in the present perfect tense. First we are going to take a look at how to form a past simple and how to form a present perfect. For the regular verbs we take the infinitive form of the verb and add '-ed' for the past simple. For example I kicked the ball. For the irregular verbs: we use the unique past simple form .For instance She bought a bike. For the present perfect we use the auxiliary verb 'to have' and the past participle. For the regular verbs we make a past participle by adding '-ed' to the verb. For example I have kicked the ball. For the irregular verbs the present perfect also uses the past participle but this past participle has a unique past perfect form. She has bought a bike. Now let's have a look at when we use a past simple. We use a past simple when something happened at a specific time in the past. I broke my leg last week. So it's important that I tell you that it was last week. For the present perfect time is not important. I have broken my leg. It's not important when it happened. We also use a present perfect for things that started in the past but have continued in the present. For example: I have lived here since 2012. In the past simple that would be: I lived there in 2012. Meaning I no longer live there.
Views: 126319 englishgrammarspot
Past Simple and Past Continuous - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Past simple and past continuous grammar lesson. In this lesson I am going to show how to use and form both the past simple & the past continuous and how to keep them apart. Take a look at these sentences: I watched the telly last night. I was watching the telly last night. The first sentences contains a past simple, the second sentence is in the past continuous. In this lesson I'm going to show you how to form a past simple and how to form a past continuous and when to use past simple andwhen to use a past continuous and more important the difference between the two. First we are going to take a look at how to form these past tenses. As you might know in the English language we have regular and irregular verbs. And this this is important to remember when forming a past simple. To make a past simple for the regular verbs, we use the base form of the verb and add 'ed.'' For example: He worked late last night www.englishgrammarspot.com The irregular verbs have their own and unique past tense so you need to study those carefully. I bought a new t-shirt yesterday. The infinitive form of the verb bought is to buy. With the past continuous we do not need to worry about regular and irregular verbs. Because all verbs that take a past continous whether they're regular or irregular, are formed by using was or were, the past tenses of the verb 'to be', and the base form of the verb and '-ing.' For example: He was working last night I was buying a t-shirt, when I saw her yesterday. Now let's have a look at how to use a past simple and how to use a past continuous and how to keep them apart. we use a past simple for actvities that were finished in the past, we usually use a time frame: He worked late last night. Here last night is what we consider timeframe. I bought a new T-shirt yesterday Here yesterday is a timeframe. A past continuous is used for activities started and finished in the past, but we want emphasized duration: so we want to show the other person the other listener or reader that the action lasted for quite some time. For example: He was working all night so we want emphasize that it lasted the entire night. we also use past continuous form for an ongoing action in the past interrupted by a sudden event. For example: I was buying a t-shirt when I ran into her so I was doing something and then suddenly a friend came up to me that's when I ran into her. Please note that for the interruption we use a past simple so we often find a past continuous and a past simple in the same sentence with the past continuous showing us that it was a continuing activity and the past simple showing the interruption of that activity.
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Past Simple Tense - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Past simple tense, one of the elementary past tenses in the English language. I am going to show you how the form a past simple tense and when to use a past simple tense. But before we get started it's good to know that in the English language we have regular and irregular verbs, and it is advisable that you study the most commonly used irregular verbs. Now let's get started. Take a look at these sentences: I walked to school yesterday. He paid for dinner last week. Both these sentences are in the past simple tense. How to form a past simple tense? For the regular verbs we simply use the infinitve form of the verb and add '-ed'. I kicked the ball. You closed the door.He wiped the table. She cooked dinner. It rained yesterday. For the plural forms: We walked to school. You watched the tennis match. They marked the tests. We need to pay extra attention to verbs that end in an '-e' such as live, close and wipe. With these verbs we use the infinitive form of the verb, but we only add a '-d'. For example I lived here in 2012. He closed the window. They wiped the floor. We also need to pay extra attention to verbs that end in a '-y'. Especially those preceded by a consonant, such as spy, envy and study. The consonants being a 'p' a 'v' and a 'd'.Here the '-y' changes into an '-i'. For example He spied on his neighbours. We envied her cousin. They studied a lot. Now let's have a look at the irregular verbs. Aall irregular verbs have a unique past simple tense form. I built that shed last year, the inifinive form is to build. She taught English in the 1990s the infinitive form is to teach. We ran the marathon in 2012.The infinitive form is 'to run.' Let's have alook at the past simple tense in questions.For all verbs, regular end irregular, we use the auxiliary verb 'to do', but we need the past simple tense, which is did and the infinitive form of the verb. Did she talk to him this morning? Did you ride your bicycles yesterday? Did they work on the farm last year? For the past simple tense in negations, regular and irregular we also use the past simple tense of the auxiliary verb 'to do', which is did and we add 'not' to it, contracting it into 'didn't plus the infinitive form of the verb. I didn't want to come over the last night. We didn't to walk to school this morning. They didn't listen to the radio yesterday. Let's have a look at the past simple tense in use.We use the past simple tense for things that have happened at a specific time in the past, so we need to know when it happened. For example: yesterday, this morning or in 2009. He left for New York yesterday. We ate our breakfast this morning. They got married in 2009. We also use the past simple tense in questions after 'when'. When did you buy that t-shirt? When did you graduate from high school? I thank you for your attention.
Views: 404516 englishgrammarspot
Present Perfect Continuous Tense - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Present perfect continuous tense video lesson. Welcome to English grammar spot. This lesson is about the present perfect continuous. In this tutorial I'm going to show you how to form the present perfect continuous and when to use the present perfect continuous but before we get started is good to know how to conjugate the verb 'to have.' For the singular forms: I have, you have, he has, she has it has and for the plural forms we have, you have, they have Now let's get started let's take a look at these sentences I have been working a lot lately. It has been snowing since Friday. Both the sentences are in the present perfect continuous tense. How to form a present perfect continuous. We use the auxiliary verb to have and the past participle of the to be which is being, the base form of the verb and ING. For example: I have been working all afternoon. You have been listening to the radio for the past hour. He has been sweeping the floor all afternoon. She has been spending a lot of money lately. It has been raining all week. And for the plural forms: We have been playing computer games all night. You have been searching for a supermarket. They have been watching the news all afternoon. Now we need to pay special attention to verbs that end in an 'e'. For example: live, make close and wipe, because these verbs drop their 'e'. Take a look at the examples: I have been living here for quite some time now. He has been making a lot of noise lately. They have been wiping the floor for over an hour. Please note that leaving, making and wiping no longer have an 'e.' Now let's take a look at the present perfect continuous in questions. Again we use the auxiliary verb 'to have' the past participle of the verb to be, the base form of the verb and ING. Has she been talking about him? Have you been playing tennis? Have they been doing their job? For negations we do the same but we add not to the auxiliary verb 'to have.' becoming haven't or hasn't. I haven't been listening to the news. She hasn't been waiting for you for over an hour. The haven't been paying attention. Now let's take a look at when we use a present perfect continuous. We use a present perfect continuous for activities that started in the past but have continued in the present. For example: I have been travelling for a few years. So I started travelling a few years ago and I'm still traveling. They have been working as a chauffeur. So in the past they started to work as a chauffeur and they still are chauffeurs. We also used the present perfect continuous for things that happened in the past but it's not important when they happened, so we do not need to know the time when it took place. She has been visiting her aunt a lot. They have been repairing that car. So both these sentences lack time. We also use the present perfect continues for things that are annoying. For example I've been doing your dirty laundry all afternoon. They have been playing loud music all night long.
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Present Simple Tense - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Present simple tense English grammar tutorial. This English grammar lesson shows you how to form a present simple tense and when to use a present simple tense. Before we get started it's good to know that when I say first person singular I mean 'I'. When I say second person singular I mean 'you'.When I say third person singular I mean 'he', 'she' and 'it'. When I say first person plural I mean 'we'. When I say second person plural I mean 'you'. When I say third person plural I mean 'they'. Now let's get started. Take a look at these sentences: I walk to school every day. They play football on Sunday. Both these sentences are in the present simpe tense. How to form a present simple tense. For the first and second person singular forms, we simply use the infinitive form of the verb. For example: I swim in the river. You read the newspaper. For all plural forms, we do the same. We use the infinitive form of the verb. We walk school. You ride your bikes. They study English. For the third person singular form, 'he', 'she', and 'it', we do something else. We use the infinitive form of the verb but we add a '-s'. For example: He walks home. She plays hockey. It rains on St. Swithins Day. We need to pay extra attention when verbs end in a '-s' sound such as kiss and catch. We use the infinitive form of the verb but we add '-es.' He misses his wife. She teaches English. For verbs ending in a 'y', preceded by a consonant, such as spy, fly, envy, worry, and the consonants being a 'p', an 'l', a 'v', and an 'r', the 'y' becomes 'ie'. He spies on his neighbours. She envies her cousin. It worries me a lot. Now let's take a look at the present simple tense in questions. For the first and second person singular form, we need the auxiliary verb 'to do', and the infinitive form of the verb. Do I need a ticket? Do you speak English? The same goes for all plural forms. Do we make the beds ourselves? Do you ride your bicycles? Do they work on the farm? For the third person singular form, we also use the auxiliary verb 'to do', but we conjugate it to 'does' and the infinitive form of the verb. Does he ride his bike often? Does she cut your hair? Does it work on batteries? Now let's take a look at the present simple tense in negations. For the first and second person singular form, we again use the auxiliary verb 'to do' but we add 'not' to it, so it becomes 'don't' and we use the infinitive form of the verb. I don't need a ticket. You don't speak English. For all plural forms, we do the same. They don't walk to school. You don't ride your bicycles. They don't listen to the radio. For the third person singular form, again we use does, and we add 'not' 'to it, so it becomes doesn't and the infinitive form of the verb. He doesn't clean the house. She doesn't cut her hair. It doesn't work on batteries. Now let's take a look at when we use the present simple tense. First we use the present simple tense for things that happen always such as: every day and constantly. Regularly, such as often and frequently. Sometimes, such as occasionally and rarely. And never. For example: I play football every Saturday. He regularly visits his aunt. We rarely go shopping in London They never work late on Friday. We also use the present simple tense for facts. The sun rises in the east. Plants need water. Finally we use the present simple tense for schedules. The bus leaves at six o'clock. The train departs from platform two. The flight arrives at gate three. www.englishgrammarspot.com.
Views: 589492 englishgrammarspot
Present Continuous Tense - English grammar tutorial video tutorial
 
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Present continuous tense video lesson. In this English lesson, I am going to show you how to form a present continuous tense, and when to use a present continuous tense. But before we get started, it's good to know how to conjugate the verb 'to be'. The singular forms are: I am you are he is she is it is. Plural forms are: we are you are they are. It's also good to know that when i say a vowel, I mean a, e, i, o, u. When I say a consonant, I mean all the other letters of the alphabet. Now let's get started. Look at these sentences: I am talking on the phone. We are cooking dinner. Both these sentences are in the present continuous tense. How to form a present continuous tense. First and foremost we need the auxiliary verb 'to be'. The infinitive form of the verb and 'ing.' Take a look at the examples: I am working late. You are talking too fast. He is watching television. She is walking to school. It is raining. For the plural forms we do exactly the same. We are singing a song. You are doing your homework. They are looking for a hotel. Now we need to pay extra attention to verbs ending in an 'e'. Such as take and make. These verbs drop their 'e'. Take a look at the examples: I am taking the bus to school. He is making dinner. We also need to pay attention to verbs that have one syllable end in a consonant and are preceded by a vowel, because they double the consonant. For example these verbs are sit, get and run. Take a look at these sentences: I'm sitting outside. You are running fast. It is getting late. We are letting ourselves go. They are swimming in the river. Please note that these verbs have doubled their consonant. Now let's have a look at the present continuous tense in questions. We need the auxiliary verb 'to be' a verb, and 'ing'. For example: Am I getting close? Are you running late? Is she taking a bus? Is she playing tennis? Is it snowing? For the plural forms: Are we going in the right direction? Are you arriving by ferry? Are they eating their lunch? Let's have a look at the present continuous tense in negations. Again we use the auxiliary verb 'to be' and we add not, the infinitive form of the verb and 'ing'. I'm not waiting for you. You aren't looking for me. He isn't sleeping late. She isn't talking on the phone. It isn't freezing. For the plural forms we do the same: We aren't putting up a tent. You aren't speaking at the same time. They aren't cutting paper. Now we are going to take a closer look at when to use a present continuous tense. We use the present continuous tense for things that are happening right now. So if you look around you or maybe out of your window, you see all kinds of things going on. Examples are: I'm watching television at the moment. It is raining right now. Look, they are swimming in the river. We also use the present continuous tense for plans in the near future. For example: I am flying to Dubai next week. He is meeting her at the airport in an hour. Are they moving this weekend? www.englishgrammarspot.com
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Present Simple Tense and Present Continuous Tense - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Present Simple and Present continuous, how to form them and how to keep them apart. In this lesson present simple vs present continuous, I'm going to show you when to use a present simple, and when to use a present continuous. Now let's get started. Let's have a look at these sentences: I never cook dinner. She is cooking dinner. The first sentence is in the present simple tense, the second sentence is in the present continuous tense. First we are going to have a look at how to form a present simple and how to form a present continuous. For the present simple we use the infinitive form of the verb, for the present continuous, we need the auxiliary verb to be, and the infinitive form of the verb and '-ing. An example for the present simple is: We walk to school every day With the present simple we need to pay extra attention to the third person singular, he, she and it. Because in conjugating that verb, we add an '-s'. An example of a present continuous is: They are washing their car. Now when do we use a present simple? We use a present simple when something happens always, regularly, sometimes and never. We use a present continuous for a temporary activity. An example for the present simple here is: She always drives like a madwoman. An example for the present continuous here is: you are driving like a madwoman, let me out of the car! A temporary activity. The present simple is also used when talking about facts. The present continuous is used when something is happening right now. An example of the present simple here is: Water freezes minus one Celsius. An example for the present continuous is: The water is freezing! Look! Finally we use the present simple for timetables and schedules for example: The bus arrives at ten thirty. We use the present continuous for a plan in the near future. We know when it's going to happen. For example: I'm taking the bus tomorrow.
Views: 140382 englishgrammarspot
Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Present perfect and present perfect continuous/ progressive video tutorial. This tutorial is about the present perfect and the present perfect continuous. In this tutorial I'm going to show you how to form and when to use a present perfect and how to form and when to use a present perfect continuous. Take a look at these sentences: I have worked since 5 o'clock in the morning. I have been working since 5 o'clock in the morning. The first sentence is in the present perfect tense, the second sentence is in the present perfect continuous tense. First we are going to take a look at how to form a present perfect. For the regular verb to have and a past participle. A past participle can be made by adding -ed to the base form of the verb. For example: I have walked the dog. For the irregular verbs we also use the auxiliary verb to have and a past participle but here the past participle has its own unique form. She has driven my car. The infinitive form of the verb is 'to drive.' A present perfect continuous is made by have and been which is the past participle form of the verb 'to be.' We use the base from of the verb and we add 'ing.' For example I have been walking the dog, and she has been driving my car. Please note that we do not need to pay attention to the regular and irregular verbs. Now let's have a look at the difference between the two. A present perfect is used for a thing, which can either be an activity or a state which started in the past and has continued into the present. For example: I have broken my leg and I have talked to him. The present perfect continuous is used for an activity that started in the past and has continued into the future. For example: I have been talking to him. We cannot say: I have been breaking my leg. We also use the present perfect continuous when talking about things that are annoying. He has been shouting at me for over half an hour.
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present perfect or past simple exercise - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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present perfect or past simple exercise.
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Gerund and Infinitive - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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This video shows you when to use a gerund and when to use the infinitive.
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Past Perfect Continuous Tense - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Past perfect continuous past perfect progressive grammar tutorial. In this lesson I am going to show you how to form a past perfect continuous and when to use a past perfect continuous. Now let's get started. Take a look at these sentences: I had been working a lot. It had been snowing. They are both in the past perfect continuous tense. How do we form a past perfect continuous? We use the auxiliary verb to have, but we use the past form so 'had.' We use the past participle form of 'to be', been and the base form of the verb and 'ing.' So for the singular forms: I had been working all afternoon. You had been listening to the radio. He had been sweeping the floor. She had been spending a lot of money. It had been raining all week. For the plural forms: We had been playing computer games all night. You had been searching for a supermarket. They had been watching the news all afternoon. We need to pay special attention to verbs that end in an '-e' such as live, make, close and wipe. These verbs drop their '-e' take a look at the examples: I had been living there for quite some time. He had been making a lot of noise and they had been wiping the floor for over an hour. Let's have a look at the past perfect continuous in questions. We use had, we use been, the base from of the verb and 'ing.' For example: Had she been talking about him? Had you been playing tennis and had they been doing their job. For negations we use the past simple form of have which is had, but we add not to it contracting it into hadn't and the past participle form of to be the base form of the verb and 'ing.' I hadn't been listening to the news. She hadn't been waiting for you for over an hour. They hadn't been paying attention. Now let's have a look at when we use the past perfect continuous. We use the past perfect continuous for activities that started in the past but before something else in the past. For example: I had been travelling before I met her. So I started traveling in the past, which lasted for some time and then I met a specific person. All these things were completed in the past. Another example is: They had been working as a chauffeur before ore taking a job as a doorman. So first they worked as a chauffeur for quite some time, and then they took another job.
Views: 113990 englishgrammarspot
Past Perfect Tense - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Past perfect grammar tutorial. In this lesson I am going to teach you how to form a past perfect and when to use a past perfect. But before we get started it's good to know that in the English language we have regular, and irregular verbs. It is advisable that you study the most commonly used irregular verbs. Now let's get started. Take a look at these sentences: I had painted the door yellow. They had paid for dinner themselves. Both these sentences are in the past perfect tense. How do we form a past perfect? For the regular verbs we use to auxiliary verb to have in it's past form which is had and the past participle.The past participle can be made by adding -ed to the base form of the verb. For example: I had kissed her. You had worked late. He had cleared the table. She had placed it on the floor. It had snowed. For the plural forms we do the same. We had walked to school. You had watched the tennis match and they had marked the tests. they have marked the tests Now we need to pay extra attention attention to verbs that end in an -e, such as live, close and wipe. These verbs use had and a part participle but, when forming a past particple we only use the base form of the verb and add a 'd'. For example: I had lived there He had closed the window They had wiped the floor. We also need to pay extra attention to verbs that end a - y, especially those preceded by consonant such as spy and study. Here the 'y' becomes an 'i' For example: He had spied on his neighbours and we had studied hard. Now let's have a look at the past perfect for the irregular verbs, again we use the past simple form of to have and a past participle, but here the past participle has a unique past perfect form. For example: I had built that shed with my own two hands. The infinitive form of the verb is 'to build.' She had bought some flowers at the market. The infinitve form of the verb is 'to buy.' We had run the marathon. The infinitive form of the verb is 'to run.' Let's have a look at the past perfect in questions for the regular forms again we use the past simple form of the auxiliary verb to have and the past participle. Again the base form of the verb and 'ed.' Had she talked to him? Had you kicked the ball? Had they worked on a farm? For the irregular verbs we also use the auxiliary verb to have, so had and the past participle and again the unique past perfect form. Had she quit her job? Had you driven her car? Had they paid for dinner? Let's have alook at the past perfect in negations. First the regular verbs, we use had plus 'not' contracting it into hadn't and the past participle, which again is made by adding 'ed' to the base form of the verb. I hadn't listened to the news. It hadn't rained since Friday. They hadn't closed the window. For the irregular verbs we use had and 'not' contracting it into hadn't, and the past participle but again here the past participle has a unique past perfect form. For example: She hadn't quit her job. You hadn't ever driven her car. They hadn't paid for dinner. Now let's have a look at when we use a past perfect.We use a past perfect for things that happened in the past but before something else in the past. So we use it to co-ordinate the past. We have two things happening in the past and the past perfect happened at the furthest point in the past. For example: I had brushed my teeth before I went to bed. So first I brushed my teeth and then I went to bed and both these things happened in the past. Another example is: They decided to buy a car after the old one had broken down. So first their old car broke down and then they decided to buy a car. For regular updates please subscribe to youtube.com/englishgrammarspot or go to www.englishgrammarspot.com.
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Articles: A, An & The - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Articles: a, an & the. Learn all about when to use 'a' or 'an' and when and how to use 'the.' Welcome to English Grammar Spot! This lesson is about 'a', 'an' and 'the'. Otherwise known as articles. Take a look at the following sentences The man walked right past me. A giant spider crawled across the ceiling. An elephant is a large animal. All the underlined words here are articles. First I am going to show you how and when to use 'a'. We use 'a' before a word that starts with a constant for example: B, C, D, F, G, H, J , K, L, M, N, P. Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z. For example: A blue bird. A nice man. A wonderful dinner. Hereblue, nice and wonderful all start with consonants. Now I'm going to show you how and when to use 'an'.We use 'an' before a word that starts with a vowel. And the vowels in the English language are A, E, I, O, U. For example: an apple an egg an insect. Now there are some exceptions. The use of 'a' or 'an' depends on the beginning sound so the word might start with a consonant or a vowel, but we really need to listen to how the word it is pronounced. For example: hour. We see an 'H' but we hear a vowel sound at the beginning 'our' and 'hour'. So what do we do in this case? We use the article 'an.' Because we hear a vowel sound. So we say an hour and not a hour. Another exception: the use of 'a' and 'an' depends on the beginning sound unique. We see a 'U' but we hear a consonant sound 'you'. So what to do we do we do here? a unique chance and not an unique chance. So remember, you have to listen carefully to how the word is pronounced and then you choose whether you use 'a' or 'an'. Now we need to talk about the indefinite and the definite article. We already talked about 'a' and 'an'. but we also need to talk about 'the'. 'A' and 'an' are indefinite articles. They are used to describe one or a number of things, but that also goes for 'the'. But here 'the' is the definite article and it is used to describe one or number of things So what is the difference? The indefinite article describes things in general. For instance a dog barks. Because that is what dogs do. Or a cat 'miaauws' The definite article describes specific things. For example when we say the dog barks, we have a particular dog in mind. For instance the dog of your neighbours or a dog that we see in the street. Now there is also something that we call the 'zero article'. Here we do not use an article at all whereas in other languages we might. Sometimes an article is left out. This happens when there's only one of someone or something. For example: Sally is head teacher there's only one head teacher in school and perhaps most important Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom there's only one queen in England. Sometimes 'the' is left out. When talking about seasons in general spring is in the air, not the spring is in the air but when we talk about a general season we use 'the.' I visited her in in the spring of 2012. Here I have a particular moment in mind. Again sometimes 'the' is left out, for instance when talking about meals in general. When shall we have lunch? I was very happy with the lunch she served. And again here we use 'the' because we have a specific lunch in mind. We also do not use an article when talking about church, hospital, prison , school, university in general. So 'the' is left out, only when we talk about the function of the building For instance, he went to university last year. So here we do not have a particular university in mind. Whereas: The university is well situated. This is about a particular university. For instance Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Yale. The is left out when we talk about languages. Arabic is difficult to learn. I love learning English. I thank you for your attention for regular updates please subscribe to youtube.com/englishgrammarspot or go to www.englishgrammarspot.com.
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Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous (progressive)  - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Past perfect past perfect continuous grammar tutorial This tutorial is about the past perfect and the past perfect continuous, also known as the past perfect progressive. In this lesson I am going to show you how to form and when to use a past perfect, and how to from and when to use a past perfect continuous. Now let's get started. Take a look at these sentences: I had worked before I ate my breakfast. I had been working before I ate my breakfast. The first sentence is in the past perfect tense.The second sentence is in the past perfect continuous tense. Now let's have a look at how to make a past perfect. We can make a past perfect for the regular verbs, by using the auxiliary verb to have but then the past tense from which is had, and the past participle. Remember we can make a past participle by adding -ed to the base form of the verb. For example: I had walked the dog. For the irregular verbs we also use had and the past participle but here the past participle has a different form. She had driven my car. (The infinitive form of the verb is to drive.) The past perfect continuous is made with the auxiliary verb have,but then the past simple for which is had, the past participle of the verb 'to be' which is been, the base form of the verb and ing. For example I had been walking the dog and she had been driving my car. Now let's have a look at the difference between the two. We use the past perfect for verbs that express either an activity or a state,which started in the past before something else in the past so we have two things happening in the past but one before the other. For example: He had talked on the phone before he started cooking I had broken my leg before I broke my arm. A past perfect continuous is used for an activity which started in the past before something else in the past, so only with activities. For example: I had been talking to him, before I sent that email. Please note that we cannot use the verb 'to break' here. I thank you for your attention.
Views: 113041 englishgrammarspot
Present Perfect Tense - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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The present perfect tense might be a hard tense for learners of English and students often have a hard time keeping the present perfect tense apart from the past simple tense. In this English grammar lesson I am going to show you how to form a present perfect tense, and when to use a present perfect tense. But before we get started it's good to know how to conjugate the verb 'to have'. For the singular forms: I have you have he has she has it has. For the plural forms: we have you have they have. It's also good to know that in the English language there are regular and irregular verbs. And it is advisable that you study the most commonly used irregular verbs. Now let's get started. Take a look at these sentences: I have painted the door yellow. They have paid for dinner themselves. Both these sentences are in the present perfect tense. How to form a present perfect tense. Let's have a look at the regular verbs. For the regular verbs we use the auxiliary verb 'to have' and the past participle. You can make the past participle by adding 'ed' to the infinitive form of the verb. Now let's have a look at the singular forms. I have worked there. You have listened carefully. He has cleared the table. She has placed it on the floor. It has snowed. For the plural forms: We have walked to school. You have watched the tennis match. They have marked the tests. Now we need to pay extra attention to verbs that end in an 'e'. Such as live, close and wipe. For these verbs we use the auxiliary verb to have and the past participle. But the past participle is made by simply adding a '-d' to the verb. Look at the examples: I have lived here for quite some time now. He has closed the window. They have wiped the floor. We also need to pay attention to verbs that end in a 'y', especially those preceded by consonant such as spy and study because we change the '-y' into an 'i'. For example: He has spied on his neighbours. We have studied hard. Now let's have a look at the irregular verbs. For the irregular verbs we also use the auxiliary verb to have and the past participle. But for the irregular verbs the past participle has a unique present perfect form. Take a look at the examples: I have built that shed with my own two hands. (The infinitive form of the verb is to build.) She has bought some flowers at the market.(The infinitive form of the verb is 'to buy'.) We have run the marathon. (The infinitive form of the verb is to run.) Now let's have a look at the present perfect tense in questions. First for the regular verbs. Again we use the auxiliary verb 'to have' and the past participle. Has she talked to him yet? Have you kicked the ball? Have they ever worked on a farm? For the irregular verbs we also use the auxiliary verb 'to have' and the past participle, but now the unique present perfect tense form. For example Has she quit her job yet? Have you ever driven a car? Have they ever paid for dinner? Let's have a look at the present perfect tense in negations. For the regular verbs the auxiliary verb 'to have' and we add 'not', contracting it into haven't or hasn't and the past participle. I haven't listened to the news. It hasn't rained since Friday They haven't closed the window. For the irregular verbs we also use the verb 'to have', and not contracting it into haven't and hasn't and the past participle. For example: She hasn't quit her job. (The infinitive form is 'to quit'.) You haven't ever driven a car. (The infinitive form is 'to drive'.) They haven't paid for dinner. (The infinitive form of the verb is 'to pay'.) Let's have a look at the present perfect tense in use. We use the present perfect tense for things that happened in the past, but it is not important when they happened. I have been to Scotland. It's not important when I've been there, it's important that I've been to Scotland. They've decided to buy a car. It's not important when they decided it, the decision alone is important. We also use the present perfect tense for things that started in the past, that have continued in the present. For example: Bob and Jack have known each other for ages. (For example they met in the 1970s, and they are still friends.) They have lived there since 2011. (So they moved there in 2011 and they've continued to live there.) We also use the present perfect tense, when the following words are in a sentence: for, yet, never, ever, just, already, since. Here are some examples: I have lived here for three years. We haven't seen that film yet. Have you ever watched a football game? www.englishgrammarspot.com
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have and have got difference: English gramar tutorial video lesson
 
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Have and have got, always wondered about the difference between have and have got? Watch this English grammar video lesson and you will know all about it. In this English grammar video I am going to show you how en and when to use 'to have' and how and when to use 'to have got' and more importantly the difference between the two. First we are going to take a look at how to conjugate the verb 'to have.' For the singular forms: I have you have he has she has it has and for the plural forms: we have you have they have First we are going to take a look at how to use 'to have' in affirmative sentences. I have brown hair she has a wonderful voice they have a lively mother. Now let's have a look at 'to have 'in questions. To make a question we need to use an auxiliary. With have we use: do or does. Do you have a cat? Do we have enough food for the party? Do they have a sister? Please note that we only use 'does' when it concerns he, she and it also known as the third person singular. Now let's have a look at' to have' in negations. Again we use 'do' and 'does.' and we add 'not' to it so it becomes don't and doesn't. And have. I don't have a car He doesn't have a brother It doesn't have to be like this. Now let's have a look at 'to have got'. For the singular forms: I have got you have got he has got she has got It has got For the plural forms: we have got you have got they have got Now in affirmative sentences, we use 'to have got' just like this: I have got a bike she has got a wonderful house they have got a swimming pool in the garden. Now let's take a look at 'to have got' in questions. With questions we do not need an auxiliary verb, because we can just use have or has. So we do not need do or does. Has she got a car? Have you got your bags? Have they got swimming pool in the garden? Let's have a look at negations and again we can just simply use have or has then we add not to it, so it becomes haven't or hasn't. So again we do not need to use an auxiliary He hasn't got a car. You haven't got a dog. They haven't got a garden. Now let's look at the difference between have and have got. To have is used when you want to express possession or ownership and it can be used for both American and British English. To have got also expresses possession or ownership but it's usually used in British English. To have can also be used as an auxiliary to make either a present perfect or a past perfect. For instance I have watched a film. but to have got cannot be used as an auxiliary, so you can only say: I have got a film, as in I own a film.
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Past Continuous Tense ( Past Progressive) - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Past continuous tense video lesson. This tutorial is about the past continuous. In this lesson I'm going to show you how to form a past continuous and when to use a past continuous but before we get started, it's good to know how to conjugate the verb 'to be' in it's past tense. For the singular forms: I was, you were, he was, she was and it was. For the plural forms we were, you were, they were. It's also good to note that when I say a vowel I mean an a, e, i, o or u Consonants are all the other letters in the alphabet. Now let's get started. Take a look at these sentences: I was talking on the phone We were cookin dinner. Both these sentences are in the past continuous tense. How to form the past continuous? We use the past tense of the verb to be so either was or were the base form of the verb and 'ing' I was working late. You were talking too fast. He was watching television. She was walking to school. It was raining. For the plural forms we do the same. We were singing a song. You were doing your homework. They were looking for a hotel. Now we need to pay extra attention to verbs that end in an 'e', such as take, make and close. These verbs drop their 'e.' For example: I was taking the bus to school He was making dinner. They were closing the window. Please note that these verbs no longer have their 'e'. We also need to pay attention to verbs that have one syllable end in a consonant and are preceeded by a vowel, because they double their final consonant. These verbs are verbs such as sit, get and run. Take a look at the examples: I was sitting outside. You were running fast. It was getting late. We were letting ourselves go. They were swimming in the river. Let's have a look at the past continuous in questions. Again we used a past simple form of the verb 'to be.' was or were. The base form of the verb and 'ing.' Was I getting close? Were you running late? Was he taking a bus? Was she playing tennis? Was it snowing? For the plural forms we do the same. Were we going in the right direction? Were you arriving by ferry? Were they eating their lunch? Now let's have a look at the past continuous in negations. Again we use the past simple form of the verb to be. So either was or were but we add 'not' to it contracting it into wasn't or weren't the base form and 'ing.' For example: I wasn't waiting for you You weren't looking for me. He wasn't sleeping late. She wasn't talking on the phone. It wasn't freezing. For the pural forms, We weren't putting up a tent You weren't speaking at the same time They weren't cutting paper. Now let's have a look and when to use a past continuous. First we use the past continuous for a temporary activity in the past. It started in the past and it was finished in the past. I was watching television at that moment. It was raining last night. They were swimming in the river yesterday. We want to emphasize that it lasted for some time. We also use the past continuous for a temporary activity in the past interrupted by a short action. This short action is usually expressed by the past simple. I was watching television when he called. It was raining when the car broke down. They were swimming,, when they saw a crocodile. We also use a past continuous for something that was planned before a certain time in the future. For example: I was flying to Dubai but his meeting was cancelled. Weren't you meeting her at the airport yesterday? They were going to that concert, but her car broke down. I thank you for your attention. For regular updates please subscibe to: youtube.com/englishgrammarspot or go to www.englishgrammarspot.com
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present simple or present continuous exercise - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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present simple or present continuous? Put your knowledge into practise!
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Present Simple exercise - English grammar exercise
 
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Present simple exercise. Put your knowledge into practise and find out if you know everything on the present simple or need to watch the lesson again! Video exercise with feedback. Welcome to English grammar spot! It is now time to put your knowledge with present simple exercise one. In this exercise I'm going to give you 15 sentences that look like the following sentence: I ... to play football. So I'm going to give you the infinitive form of the verb and your job is to conjugate that verb into fitting it in the sentence. I am going to give you a time frame, Time's up! I play football. Ready? Let's get started. They ...(to walk) eight miles a day. They walk eight miles a day. Remember when it is a plural we simply use the base form of the verb. It usually ... (to snow) in winter here. It usually snows in winter here. Here it concerns a third person singular ít'so we need to add an -s to the base form of the verb. Water ... (to boil) at a 100 degrees Celsius. Water boils at a 100 degrees Celsius. Again we have a third person singular namely water because we can replace it by the pronoun 'it.' So we need to add an -s, also remember when it is a present simple and it concerns a fact we need to use the present simple. All trains ... (to depart) from platform B. All trains depart from platform B. Here all trains can be replaced by the pronoun 'they' and since it is a plural we simply use the base form of the verb. Those dogs ... (to be) old. Those dogs are old. Remember the verb 'to be' has its own forms so it is hard to conjugate it: I am you are, he is, she is, it is, we are, you are, they are and those dogs can be replaced by they, so we use are. That cat ... (to try) to catch the mouse. That cat tries to catch the mouse. Now remember when it concerns a one syllable verb that ends in a 'y', and is preceded by a consonant and more importantly when it concerns a third person singular and here that cat can be replaced by 'it we change the 'y' into 'ie' and obviously we add an -s. The car ... (to be) fast. The car is fast. Remember 'to be' has its own forms. Now let's continue with questions. You ... (to speak) English? Do you speak English? Remember when forming questions in the present simple we need a helping verb and with the present simple e use the verb 'to do.' ... your brother ... (to speak) Arabic. Does your brother speak Arabic? Now remember your brother is a third person singular so we need to use does, but don't put an -s after speak because the -s has moved on to the verb 'to do' So it is not does your brother speaks. I ... (not to like) pancakes. Also with negations in the present simple we need the verb 'to do' so here the answer is: I don't like pancakes. It ... (not to rain) in July here. It doesn't rain in July here. Remember it's a third person singular and we need a helping verb to do so it becomes does and don't put an -s after rain. ... (you - not to know) me? Don't you know me? Angela often ... (to try) to help me. Angela often tries to help me. Remember third person singular ending in y. The child ... (to catch) the ball for me. The child catches the ball for me. Remember when the verb ends in an -s sound, here catch, and it concerns a third person singular we have to put -es after the base form of the verb. Final question. ... (to do - your sister) your homework? Does your sister do your homework? This must look a little strange because we use the verb 'to do' twice here, but first we use does obviously as a helping verb and the second 'do' is a lexical verb, it adds meaning to the sentence, here the meaning of making. I thank you for your attention and I hope you did well but if you need to know extra information simply go to youtube.com/englishgrammarspot or go to www.englishgrammarspot.com to watch the video on the present simple again or to watch my other videos.
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Comparisons (comparative and superlative) - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Comparisons can be made by using a comparative or a superlative. This lesson is on comparisons, in both comparative and superlative form. In this lesson I'm going to show you how to make comparisons with adjectives, the exceptions, so the irregular forms comparisons with adverbs, and obviously the exceptions there, a construction that we call as and as and when to use as or like. Now let's get started. What is a comparative? A comparative compares two things, usually in combination with the word than. My sister is taller than me. The superlative compares three or more things usually in combination with the. She is the tallest of them all. So where the comparative only compared me my sister, with the superlative my sister is compared to everyone and we have concluded that she's the tallest. Now how do we form comparisons? When it concerns one syllable adjectives such as old young and quick, we simply add '-er' to the adjective for the comparative and '-est' to the adjective for the superlative. So we have the addictive old, and the comparative older,and the superlative is oldest. The same goes for young young younger youngest, quick quicker quickest. I'm going to show you some examples in sentences. For example: My grandfather is old, My grandmother is older than him but their neighbour is the oldest person alive. So my grandfather is old, is an adjective because it says something about the noun my grandfather, then when we compare my grandfather to my grandmother we must conclude that my grandmother is older so here we use a comparative but when we compare their neighbour to my grandmother and grandfather or more when he compare the neighbour of my grandmother and grandfather to the rest of the world we must conclude that he is the oldest so the superlative form. I am young, my brother is younger than me but my sister is the youngest in our family. A lion is quick, a leopard is quicker but a cheetah is the quickest of felines. Please note, that verbs that end in an '-e' such as safe we only add an 'r'or 'st': safe safer safest. Now it is a little bit trickier when it comes to two-syllable adjectives, when this stress is on the second syllable we add 'er'or 'est' to the adjective for example: quiet quieter quietest. The stress in quiet is on the final syllable quiet so we add 'er' or 'est'. quiet quieter quietest. Yet when the stress is on the first syllable we put more in front of the comparative, and most in front of the superlative so we don't use 'er' or 'est.' For example silent, more silent most silent. Please note that the stress in silent is on the first syllable, Adjectives with three syllables or more we simply put more or most before the addictive. So more for the comparative and most for the superlative. London is beautiful, yet I consider Venice more beautiful and in my opinion Paris is the most beautiful city in the world. Now obviously there are some exceptions. First that we call 'leersomeowy' these adjectives that and ens in the letter above and they contain two or more syllables with the stress on the second syllable. With these words we also add -er or -est. little, littler, littlest. clever, cleverer, cleverest. handsome, handsomer, handsomest. narrow narrower narrowest. happy, happier, happiest and please note that the 'y' has become an 'i'. the general exceptions are: good, better, best. bad, worse, worst much or many, more and most and far, further, furthest. These are the most common ones and it is advisable that you just simply study them because there's no rule to follow hereand please note that bad badder baddest is incorrect. Now let's have a look at adverbs. One syllable adverbs such as hard, late and fair, we also add -er for the comparative or -est for the superlative. I drive fast, yet my mom drives faster, but my little brother drives the fastest. Please note that an adverbs here says something about the verb, the way we drive. The train arrived late, luckily my connecting shuttle bus was later and thankfully my plane departed the latest of them all when it comes to two or more syllable adverbs such as easily carefully and calmly we put more for the comparative or most for the superlatives before the adverb: For example: He drove easily or carefully through the desert, yet he drove more easily more carefully through the woods and most easily or most carefully on the highway. Also with the adverbs there are some exceptions. The irregular forms: well, better, best. Remeber with the adjectives it was good, better, best. little, less, least. much more most www.englishgrammarspot.com
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Future tense: English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Future tenses video lesson. In this lesson I am going to show you how to form a future tense and when to use a future tense. Take a look at these sentences: I will help you carry those bags. She is going to work tomorrow. She is flying to London next week. The bus leaves at six o'clock. The prices are about to go up. By this time tomorrow he will be lying on the beach. All of the sentences are in the future tense, but as you can see there is quite some variation.The most commonly used future tenses are: shall and will and the base form of the verb, to be going to and the base form of the verb, the present continuous, the present simple, to be about to and the base form of the verb. Let's take a look at shall and will and the base form of the verb we use this form for things decided on the spot.They are not fixed agreements,and they are unsure. We need to pay attention to shall, because we only use shall in questions with I and we. Shall I help you with that? Shall we go for a swim? We use will in all other situations. I will take the bus. He will listen to me. We will make dinner. They will drop by. Let's look at questions with will. Again we use the base form of the verb. Will he put he put his tent? Will she celebrate her birthday? Will you park your bikes in the shed? Let's look at negations with will.We use will contracting it into won't and the base form of the verb. Note I have also included shall. Shall plus not becomes shan't and the base form of the verb. But this form is very old-fashioned, but I thought it would be fun to put it in any way. Shan't I get sunburned? It sounds quite victorian.You won't cross the road. It won't be easy. We won't make the beds. They won't need a passport. Now let's take a look at that other form: to be + going to + the base form of the verb. We use this form for fixed plans in the future. We need to know when it's going to happen so we need to have some kind of time indication. Let's look at the questions: Am I going to pass my exams this afternoon? Is she going to visit her aunt soon? Are they going to run the marathon next week?. Let's have a look at the negations: I am not going to leasrn it by heart this evening. He isn't going to buy a new computer on Tuesday. They aren't going to watch the telly this night. . Sometimes we also use a present continuous when talking about the future,we use the present continuous for plans in very near future and again and we need to know when they are happening. I am working this afternoon. He's calling her in the morning. We are driving down the street any minute now. Sometimes we also use the present simple for the future, especially for fixed schedules. The lesson starts at half past eight. The bus arrives at ten o'clock. The train departs from platform b. Another form to talk about the future is to use to be and the base form of the verb. We use this form when you are are on the verge of doing something. We use this form for something that can happen any minute from now. The lesson is about to begin. The airplane is about to take off. They are about open the department store. The final form is the future continuous, and this is quite a tricky one, we use the future continuous when you tell someone about your future plans, something that you will be doing at a specific time in the future. We use shall and will, we use the infinitive form of the verb to be, we use the base form of the verb and ing. For example: By this time next year, I will be working at the head office. No they can't help you tomorrow, they will be doing their homework.
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Helping verbs: to be, to do, to have - English grammar tutorial  video tutorial
 
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Helping verbs (or primary auxiliaries) This lesson is about the English helping verbs, also known as the primary auxiliaries, to be, to do and to have. I will discuss these verbs in both their lexical (expressing meaning) and auxiliary (helping) capacities.
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Passive voice lesson - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Passive voice grammar tutorial. In this lesson I'm going to show you when to use passive and how to form a passive. I'm going to show you how to form a passive for every tense in the English language. Take a look at the following sentences: I have closed the door. The door has been closed by me. The first sentence is an active sentence, the second sentence is a passive sentence. Now usually we turn active sentences into passive sentences so what we do is, the object of the active sentence becomes that subject of the passive sentence and the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence, so I has become me and the door has become the subject of the passive sentence. Now when do we use a passive? I'm going to tell you some technicalities be not alarmed the passive is not hard but there are some things that you need to know. We use a passive when the subject of a verb so in the example before, is more important than the person or thing carrying it out the object. So in the example before the door was more important than me closing it. The object of the passive form is usually left out because is not important or as in my example preceded by the way it 'by' When we want to changean active sentence into a passive as I already said, the object if the active sentence becomes that subject of the passive sentence. The passive always need to contain a form of the auxiliary verb to be and the past participle. Remember the English language has regular and irregular verbs. So for the regular verbs a past aprticiple is made by adding 'ed' to the base from of the verb or we use its own unique form, so for instance take - took - taken the past participle will be taken know the auxiliary verb takes the tense if the verb in the active sentence, so when we change an active sentence into passive we need to put verb to be in the tense of the active sentence. The main verb in the active sentence is turned into past participle. Now I don't hope that your head is spinning because it's really quite easy I'll show you. So we are going to turn an active present simple into a passive present simple. She buys tomatoes Now remember we're going to swap she and tomatoes around so we're going to start with tomatoes. A passive is made by the verb to be and the past participle so we need to pick the correct form of the verb to be for tomatoes which is 'are' here so Tomatoes are bought by her. Remember: to buy - bought - bought. Another example the present continuous. An active present continuous is They are taking down the police station. For the passive form we need to maintain that continuous form that's quite hard so we need either to use to use: am, are or is and then the continuous form being and the past participle. Don't forget to put being into a continuous passive when your active sentence was present continuous you have to maintain that you can't swap tenses.The police station is being taken down. So please note that we've put the police station into the slots of the subject in the passive sentence as it is important by whom the police station is being takendown. So again don't forget to put in being. Let's have a look at present perfect an active present perfect is: I havve painted the door so we are going to change it into a present perfect passive and remember the door has to become the subject. So a passive is made by have or has and then a form of to be and since it is perfect here we need to use the perfect form of the verb to be so here it is been and the past participle of the verb to paint. The door has been painted. So pay attention, in the active form it was I have but since in the passive form the door has become third person singular you need to use has. Now the past tenses, first the past simple active: They sold the car yesterday. Remember just as in the present simple we need to use a form of 'to be' so was or were and the possible participle. The car was sold yesterday. Past continuous active They were cleaning the house. So to make it into a passive we will make the house the subject of the passive form. Remeber don't forget to put in being Passive: was or were + being and the past participle. The house was being cleaned it was done by them, but that's not important the past perfect, the active past perfect they had given him a job and the passive we use had + been just as in the present perfect and past participle to give gave given. He had been given a job. www.englishgrammarspot.com
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adverbs - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Adverb grammar lesson. This lesson is about adverbs. Take a look at these sentences She sings beautifully. He felt poorly after he fell from the stairs. The words that are underlined are adverbs. In this lesson I'm going to show you what adverbs exactly are, the different types of adverbs, how to form an adverbs, how to place an adverbs in a sentence and the exceptions. I'm going to take you through the most common exceptions, not all. Now what are adverbs? Adverbs add extra information to a verb. For example: He arrived home safely. Safely here says something about arriving we could also say he arrived home early and here early would be an adverb. It also comments on an adjective. Remember an adjective says someting about a noun. She wore a brightly coloured dress. Dress in this sentence is a noun. Coloured here is an adjective because it says something about the dress but brightly says something about the way it was coloured. We could also say she that she wore a pink coloured dress and then pink would be an adverb. It also says something about other at adverbs. For example: She did her job fairly well. Well says something about the manner in which she did her job and fairly says something about well, we could also say she did her job reasonably well. An adverbs also says something about a sentences or a clause. Honestly I feel very ill. Here the adverbs comments on the entire sentence there are many different types of adverbs, First there are adverbs of manner, these adverbs say someting about how it happens. He looked at me carefully. We could also say he looked at me slowly it says something about the way he looked at me. The museum will slowly go bankrupt not quickly, slowly. He plays football well There are also adverbs of place, where does it happen. My keys must be somewhere. Here somewhere is an adverb. There they are or here they are. These are adverbs. We had to travel quite far. There are also adverbs of time when doesn't happen. Finaly, which means in the end, he managed to grow a beard. He eventually came home. He rang her immediately after he had heard the news. There are also adverbs of frequency, how often does it happen. I always brush my teeth before going to bed. She's often late for work. My aunt never rings me on my birthday. Other types of adverbs of frequency are, sometimes or regularly. Now we also have adverbs of degree in what way does it happen. He arrived home fairly late. This cake can be made quite easily and they are definitely right. Finally sentence adverbs, they comment on an entire sentence or a clause. Frankly I'm fed up with you. The child clearly wanted some ice cream. He loved her very much obviously. Usually but not always as you can see in the second sentence, these adverbs can be found at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. Now how do we form an adverb? Please note that there is a clear difference in form between an adverb and an adjective. Remember an adjective says something about a noun. To form an adverb, we usually take an adjective and we add -ly to this adjective. We quickly packed our bags and left. They don't normally sell these shoes. I thank you for your attention for regular updates please subscribe to youtube.com/englishgrammarspot or go to www.englishgrammarspot.com
Views: 488249 englishgrammarspot
Adjectives - English grammar tutorial video lesson
 
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Adjectives video lesson. Welcome to English grammar spot. This lesson is about adjectives. Take a look at these sentences: She's a beautiful singer He became poor after the war. Both the underlined words are what we call it adjectives. In this lesson I'm going to show you what adjectives exactly are. I'm going to explain something about the construction, which we call the + adjective and I'm going to take you through some common confusables. What are adjectives? Adjectives give information about a noun or a pronoun so a noun can be dog, cat and a pronoun can be he, she, it, him, her etc. This information can either be one word or an entire clause or phrase. And a clause or a phrase is a part of a sentenc.e For example he's talented. Talented says something about the pronoun he.. My trousers are white. White says something about my trousers my trousers here being a noun. My aunt, who is quite old, came to vist us. Here the underlines who is quite old can also be concerned as an adjective, because it says something extra about my aunt. Here it is clause and we call it a relative clause here. Now where do we place adjectives? We place adjectives generally before a noun. For example: He's a talented football player. My right leg is broken. Leg is the noun, right is the adjective. We place the adjective after a verb when it is part of a predicate and predicate are all the verbs in a sentence. For example: This building can never be old. Old obviuosly says something about the building, but because we have a predicate here so several verbs and it is part of the predicate, we put it at the end sentence. Now let's take a look at the + adjective structure. When describing a certain group the 'the + adjective' construction is used. For example: The English eat a hearty breakfast. Or the rich get richer every year, while the poor get poorer. So we use this for an entire group so this could also be the French, the Dutch, the Thai the Chinese, the Brazilians, for example. Now let's take a look at some common confusables. For instance the word poor. He is a poor boy. so this means he has no money but Her hearing is poor This means she can't hear very well. Also the word 'small': Their farm is small says something about the size but they are small farmers this does not mean that there's very little people but it says something about their farm occupation so they probably have a small piece of land which they work on also the word mean. He's mean with his money Obviously means that he doesn't like to spend his money but he's a mean man means that he's not kind. www.englishgrammarspot.com
Views: 59113 englishgrammarspot

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